Sexual harassment is bullying or coercion of a sexual nature and the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors. Harassers or victims may be of either gender. In most modern legal contexts, sexual harassment is illegal. Laws surrounding sexual harassment generally do not prohibit simple teasing, offhand comments, or minor isolated incidents—that is due to the fact that they do not impose a "general civility code".
The legal and social understanding of sexual harassment, however, varies by culture. Sexual harassment by an employer is a form of illegal employment discrimination.
For many businesses or organizations, preventing sexual harassment and defending employees from sexual harassment charges have become key goals of legal decision-making. The modern legal understanding of sexual harassment was first developed in the s, although related concepts have existed in many cultures.
Although legal activist Catharine MacKinnon is sometimes credited with creating the laws surrounding sexual harassment in the United States with her book entitled Sexual Harassment of Working Women the Define sexual harassment in workplace known use of the term sexual harassment was in a report about discrimination called "Saturn's Rings" by Mary RowePh.
In the book In Our Time: Memoir of a Revolutionjournalist Susan Brownmiller quotes Cornell University activists who believed they had coined the term 'sexual harassment' in after being asked for help by Carmita Dickerson Wooda year-old single mother who was being harassed by a faculty member at Cornell's Department of Nuclear Physics. One of the first legal formulations of the concept of sexual harassment as consistent with sex discrimination and therefore prohibited behavior under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of appeared in the seminal book by Catharine MacKinnon  entitled "Sexual Harassment of Working Women".
Sexual harassment first became codified in U. The majority of women pursuing these cases were African American, and many of the women were former civil rights activists who applied principles of civil rights to sex discrimination.
Saxbe and Paulette L. Costle, Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency determined it was sex discrimination to Define sexual harassment in workplace someone for refusing a supervisor's advances. Jackson was the first federal appeals court case to hold that workplace sexual harassment was employment discrimination. The term was largely unknown outside academic and legal circles until the early s when Anita Hill witnessed and testified against Supreme Court of the United States nominee Clarence Thomas.
Sexual harassment may occur Define sexual harassment in workplace a variety of circumstances—in workplaces as varied as factories, school, college, acting, and the music business. They can also be expecting to receive such power or authority in form of promotion. Forms of harassment relationships include:. With the advent of the internet, social interactions, including sexual harassment, increasingly occur online, for example in video games or in chat rooms.
Studies of sexual harassment have found that it is markedly more common in the military than in civilian settings.
While some male military personnel are sexually harassed, women are substantially more likely to be affected. Child recruits under the age of 18 and children in cadet forces also face an elevated risk.
In the UK, for example, hundreds of complaints of the sexual abuse of cadets have been recorded since Individuals detained by the military are also vulnerable to sexual harassment. During the Iraq Warfor example, personnel of the US army and US Central Intelligence Agency committed a number of human rights violations against detainees in the Abu Ghraib prison including rapesodomyand other forms of sexual abuse. Although the risk of sexual misconduct in the armed forces is widely acknowledged, personnel are frequently reluctant to report incidents, typically out of fear of reprisals, according to research in Australia, Canada, France, the UK, and the US.
Women affected by sexual harassment are more likely than other women to stress -related mental illness afterwards. One of the difficulties in understanding sexual harassment is that it involves a range of behaviors. In most cases although not in all cases it is difficult for the victim to describe what they experienced.
This can be related to difficulty classifying the situation or could be related to stress and humiliation experienced by the recipient. Moreover, behavior and motives vary between individual cases. Author Martha Langelan describes four different classes of harassers. Sexual harassment and assault may be prevented by secondary school college,   "Define sexual harassment in workplace" workplace education programs.
Many sororities and fraternities in the United States take preventative measures against hazing and hazing activities during the participants' pledging processes which may often include sexual harassment. Many Greek organizations and universities nationwide have anti-hazing policies that explicitly recognize various acts and examples of hazing, and offer preventative measures for such situations.
The impact of sexual harassment can vary. In research carried out by the EU Fundamental Rights Agency, 17, female victims of sexual assault were asked to name the feelings that resulted from the most serious incident of sexual assault that they had encountered since the age of Psychologists and social workers report that severe or chronic sexual harassment can have the Define sexual harassment in workplace psychological effects as rape or sexual assault.
As an overall social and economic effect every year, sexual harassment deprives women from active social and economic participation and costs hundreds of millions of dollars in lost educational and professional opportunities for mostly girls and women.
Sexual harassment, by definition, is unwanted and not to be tolerated. There are ways, however, for offended and injured people to overcome the resultant psychological effects, remain in or return to society, regain healthy feelings within personal relationships when they were affected by the outside relationship trauma, regain social approval, and recover the ability to concentrate and be productive in educational and work environments.
These include stress management and therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy friends and family support, and advocacy. Immediate psychological and legal counseling are recommended since self-treatment may not release stress or remove trauma, and simply reporting to authorities may not have the desired effect, may be ignored, or may further injure the victim at its response. A study done by K. Yount found three dominant strategies developed by a sample of women coal miners to manage sexual harassment on the job: The "ladies" were typically the older women workers who tended to disengage from the men, kept their distance, avoided using profanity, avoided engaging in any behavior that might be interpreted as suggestive.
They also tended to emphasize by their appearance and manners that they were ladies. The consequences for the "ladies" were that they were the targets of the least amount of come-ons, teasing and sexual harassment, but they also accepted the least prestigious and lowest-paid jobs. The "flirts" were Define sexual harassment in workplace often the younger single women.
Define sexual harassment in workplace a defense mechanism, they pretended to be flattered when they were the targets of sexual comments. Consequently, they became perceived as the "embodiment of the female stereotype, The "tomboys" were generally single women, but were older than the "flirts".
They attempted to separate themselves from the female stereotype and focused on their status as coal miners and tried to develop a "thick skin". They responded to Define sexual harassment in workplace with humor, comebacks, sexual talk of their own, or reciprocation.
As a result, they were often viewed as sluts or sexually promiscuous and as women who violated the sexual double standard. Consequently, they were subjected to intensified and increased harassment by some men. It was not clear whether the tomboy strategy resulted in better or worse job assignments. The findings of this study may be applicable to other work settings, including factories, restaurants, offices, and universities. The study concludes that individual strategies for coping with sexual harassment are not likely to be effective and may have unexpected negative consequences for the workplace and may even lead to increased sexual harassment.
Women who try to deal with sexual harassment on their own, regardless of what they do, seem to be in a no-win situation. Common psychological, academic, professional, financial, and social effects of sexual harassment and retaliation:. Some of the psychological and health effects that can occur in someone has been sexually harassed as a result of stress and humiliation: Retaliation and backlash against a victim are very common, particularly a complainant.
Victims who speak out against sexual harassment are often labeled troublemakers who are on their own "power trips", or who are looking for attention.
Similar to cases of rape or sexual assault, the victim often becomes the accused, with their appearance, private life, and character likely to fall under intrusive scrutiny and attack. They may become the targets of mobbing or relational aggression. Women are not necessarily sympathetic to female complainants who have been sexually harassed.