All individuals are a part of at least one culture. These cultural contingencies shape behavior, behavior that may or may not be acceptable or familiar to behavior analysts from another culture.
To better serve individuals, assessments and interventions should be selected with a consideration of cultural factors, including cultural preferences and norms.
That is, humans control contingencies of reinforcement and punishment that affect the behavior and learned reinforcers and punishers of a person or a group of people. Distinguishable stimuli and response classes that occur in cultures include race, socioeconomic class, age, religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity, disability, nationality, and geographic context Sugai et al.
There are possible benefits for society, too, such as to better guide assessment and intervention practices. By acknowledging the importance of culture, behavior analysts can help achieve socially meaningful goals such as reducing "Dating cross culturally competent" in access to services and improving the quality of services for diverse populations in behavioral health systems U. Department of Health and Human Services Culturally aware behavior analysts should understand their own cultural values, preferences, Dating cross culturally competent, and circumstances and seek to learn about those of their clients.
That is, behavior analysts should be aware about their own personal biases and how they compare to and may affect their relationship with their client.
Behaviorally, cultural awareness may be defined as the discriminated operant of tacting contingencies of reinforcement and punishment administered by a group of individuals.
In other words, a behavior analyst who is culturally aware is able to identify the reinforcement and punishment contingencies that have been established by themselves, their colleagues, their family, and any other social group they may belong to or identify with. Further, cultural awareness may be important because behavioral patterns that are viewed as problematic in our own culture may be the norm in other cultures Goldiamond ; Vandenberghe In fact, the student ultimately stopped engaging in any appropriate behavior which lead to the verbal praise.
However, neither the behavior analyst nor the special Dating cross culturally competent teacher questioned their personal assumption that the behavior is inappropriate for the classroom or their preferences about how children should act after receiving praise. A thorough behavior analytic intervention may be effective with individuals across various cultures Kauffman et al.
However, skilled, thorough, and well-trained behavior analysts may not always consider client culture. However, common functional assessment data collection strategies and interview forms may not thoroughly explore cultural preferences and norms. Behavior analysts may consider the intersection of a cultural and linguistic context with the terms, concepts, and science of behavior analysis Jones and Hoerger It is possible that, without information about cultural preferences and norms, behavior analysts may unintentionally provide less than optimal service delivery.
Consider an example of a behavior analyst who provided in-home and community services to the family of a child with severe autism. The family, to whom church is very important, attended a weekly three hour church service. Eventually, the family specifically asked the behavior analyst to teach the child the necessary skills to participate in the church service.
However, the behavior analyst still did not assign a high priority to teaching the child
Dating cross culturally competent skills needed for successful church attendance. In addition to the previous two examples, being culturally aware may also increase the probability that behavior analysts will engage in behaviors that are socially acceptable to Dating cross culturally competent from diverse cultural backgrounds.
These behaviors include selecting culturally appropriate treatments see Rispoli et al. Finally, increasing cultural awareness may also decrease the probability of behavior analysts expecting Dating cross culturally competent clients they serve to conform to their own cultural and scientific values and contingencies.
The science of applied behavior analysis ABA is a unique cultural system see Glenn Given that the science of ABA inherently embodies a certain set of values such as a Westernized model of science and care, the cultural values and contingencies of ABA may not always align with those of the client. As Bolling noted. Awareness of cultural differences and similarities may allow for programmatic modifications that result in more culturally appropriate models of behavior analytic service delivery.
In summary, there may be many important reasons for behavior analysts to develop cultural awareness skills. Although there is a growing interest in conceptual e. Therefore, guidance on how to become culturally aware may be an important resource for behavior analysts.
The purpose of this paper is to offer suggestions that can serve as a starting point for how behavior analysts may further increase their cultural awareness. We believe that cultural awareness, as described herein, reflect Baer et al.
Individuals participating in behavior change programs and those who provide significant support for them should determine what is important to them, to their society, and to their culture. Then, we describe strategies for embedding cultural awareness practices into behavior analytic service delivery, supervision, and professional development. Finally, we conclude with additional discussion and considerations for becoming culturally aware in everyday practice.
We will refer to cultural values and contingencies as the cultural system, except where values "Dating cross culturally competent" contingencies play an independent role in our analysis of developing cultural awareness.
We will refer to cultural identity as characteristics that extend beyond individual differences to those traits that members of a given culture share with one another Adler For example, an individual from Africa may express their cultural identity through their belief structure, attire, foods eaten, or hair style. Even though this individual might identify as African, there are subcultures to which they might further identify with.
Our suggestions are meant to serve as a starting point for furthering a behavior analytic understanding of cultural awareness and how that awareness can be integrated and improved upon in everyday practice.
It is recommended that behavior analysts concurrently engage in cultural awareness practices concerning their own behavior as well as those of their clients. Lastly, our suggestions are not intended to result in a rigid set of rules or practices. Rather, our hope is the suggestions will lead to broad practices that develop and continually refine cultural awareness, which will hopefully allow behavior analysts to be more open and flexible to the various cultures that will be experienced. Openness and flexibility in the presence of various cultures will hopefully result in better outcomes for those we serve.
From a behavior analytic perspective, self-awareness can be defined as verbal discrimination of our own behavior Barnes-Holmes et al. An understanding of our own cultural system may be an important first step toward correcting biases that affect our interactions with others Lillis and Hayes Developing self-awareness may prevent our biases from impeding how we serve culturally diverse clients.
One strategy to enhance cultural self-awareness is talking about our diverse client interactions with a professional community in group discussions, written forums, journals, mentorship meetings, verbal feedback sessions, or self-reflective exercises Tervalon and Murray-Garcia Skinner emphasized the relationship between self-awareness and control over our own behavior,and proposed that talking about our behavior is how we achieve self-awareness.
Recent behavior analytic research indicates that when individuals verbally describe their own behavior, the behavior may change Tourinho Discussion with mentors and colleagues may help behavior analysts learn about themselves and also change their cross-cultural interactions for the Dating cross culturally competent. We recommend practitioners hone their ability to attend closely to clients and self, in context, for two reasons related to self-awareness. First, such attention may help enhance skills of self-observation and self-description regarding our overt and covert behavior.
Also, while we can remain committed to overtly behaving in ways consistent with values of multiculturalism, even in the presence of values and contingencies that create bias, mindfulness may reduce the biases that produce thoughts, feelings, and reactions to culturally diverse people Dating cross culturally competent and Hayes Attending closely to our clients and being active and
Dating cross culturally competent is good practice for building rapport, too.
Clinicians can engage in more culturally aware practice by assessing, collecting data, and testing hypotheses rather than accepting their own experiences and biases as the norm Sue Scientific mindedness is a characteristic of clinicians and human service providers who develop theories about client behaviors by analyzing data rather than by on their personal assumptions Sueand may reduce bias and foster better understanding of client behavior.
The practitioner may notice, and be able to covertly tact, that this is not the norm of the cultural majority nor congruent with his personal experience or values. Lillis and Hayes recommend practitioners accept that such reactions may be normal, given
Dating cross culturally competent cultural systems and the human tendency to evaluate, but remain committed to acting positively based on our values.
Through a process of assessment and covert verbal behavior, the practitioner might accept the co-sleeping arrangement to be culturally appropriate for and preferred by the family, and choose to develop an intervention that keeps the arrangement in place.
A blend of both self-awareness and reliance on scientific knowledge is likely to produce the most culturally aware assessment and intervention.
Finally, there are several self-assessment tools that behavior analysts can use to become more aware of their own cultural identity. The 30 types of individuals in these questions are then organized into five categories: Behavior analysts can then consider how their biases might affect treatment and may consider other courses of action, such as making referrals to other behavior analysts.
A final potentially useful measure is the Multicultural Sensitivity Scale Jibaja et al. This tool was originally used to assess the multicultural sensitivity of teachers and was later adapted to used by physician assistant students Jibaja-Rusth et al.
Altogether, the behavior analyst may find these assessments helpful in further developing their own cultural awareness in order to further develop culturally competent methods of service delivery.
The above section describes strategies for how a behavior analyst may learn about his or her own cultural system. Culturally aware assessment practices may allow behavior analysts to obtain important cultural information about clients in order to understand their worldviews. Culturally aware assessment may also allow behavior analysts to identify any cultural barriers such as modalities of communication and Dating cross culturally competent of emotions see Garcia et al.
To increase the probability that assessment will identify cultural variables, Vandenberghe recommends focusing on functional relations and behavioral principles rather than topography. For example, Filipino families often live with extended family members, and the household situation can seem chaotic by Western living standards. If a child has difficulty sleeping, a behavior analyst may advise the parents that they should separate the sleeping room from the living room.
However, during the following session, it might be revealed that the parents did not change anything Dating cross culturally competent that the child is still sleep deprived. In this case, a natural reaction may be to become frustrated with the lack of parental follow through. However, lack of follow through may also be interpreted as an indicator that the intervention recommendation may not have been culturally appropriate.
Vandenberghe emphasizes the need for a behavior analyst to be aware of differences that may exist, including cultural differences, between the behavior analyst, client, and their families. Therefore, behavior analysts should be skilled in sending and receiving cultural communications.
Specific recommendations are described below. Our first recommendation, which applies to all phases of assessment and treatment, is that behavior analysts should reflect on the spoken and written language he or she uses and how it will be perceived by the client.
We recommend behavior analysts avoid the use of behavior analytic jargon, as it may confuse clients and their families, and possibly lead to their failure to implement interventions. Avoidance of excessive or complex behavior analytic jargon may eliminate such problems.
It is important throughout assessment and treatment to communicate in a manner easily understood, culturally aware, and does not include terms that are culturally inappropriate or confusing Rolider and Axelrod Furthermore, it may be important to consider Dating cross culturally competent will be completing service related forms e.
If a person lacks adequate language comprehension, completing paperwork may be difficult, embarrassing, or intimidating. In such a case, behavior analysts may consider giving the person the opportunity to complete the forms orally or have another person help with the form completion. The cultural identity analysis should inform the assessment process and the designing of interventions. During intake, the behavior analyst may, with proper consent, gather input from key community members familiar with the client, in addition to those whose is typically sought e.
Additionally, the behavior analyst should seek recommendations from the family regarding additional parties e. For example, behavioral patterns may be similar across cultures, while the language and concepts that are used can differ Vandenberghe It is therefore important for behavior analysts to clarify what the client or family actually mean by the terms they use.
The behavior analyst should also consider accounting for what treatments are appropriate, preferable, or considered norms within a culture. As illustrated by the example of the Filipino family at the beginning of this section, identifying cultural norms may be important for successful assessment and effective treatment.
For example, the grandparents rather than the parents may be the primary caregivers in an Indian family. Therefore, it would be important to include the grandparents during intake in order to obtain information.
And in order to work with people from different cultural groups effectively, you . Culture Matters is a cross-cultural training workbook developed by Dating cross culturally competent Peace.