Compulsive sexual behavior CSB is highly prevalent among men, often co-occurring with psychiatric disorders and traumatic experiences. Psychiatric disorders and trauma are highly prevalent among military veterans, yet there is a paucity of research on CSB among military samples.
Compulsive sexual behavior CSB has been proposed to have two primary components: Although
Hyper sexuality and ptsd is not specifically recognized as a diagnosable clinical disorder by the DSM, Kafka proposed criteria for a hypersexual disorder that included the major components noted above, as well as additional elements such as perceived lack of control over these behaviors and engagement in hypersexual thoughts or behaviors in response to negative affect Kafka, An important research gap exists with respect to the paucity of CSB research amongst U.
Of particular concern for military populations is the relationship between compulsive sexual behavior and PTSD, a condition that has a substantially greater prevalence among military veterans compared to the general population. Researchers have noted some veterans may use sexual behaviors to cope with trauma Howard,although the association between PTSD and CSB has not been extensively studied in military samples.
Therefore, due to the greater prevalence of these potential risk factors, one might expect to find greater prevalence of CSB among military veterans compared to non-military
Hyper sexuality and ptsd. Despite these indicators that CSB may be important Hyper sexuality and ptsd study in military populations, there has yet to be a published study on the topic.
This study presents an exploratory analysis of CSB in a sample of veteran men who were surveyed after returning from military deployment. The primary aim of this study was to identify both the prevalence of and potential risk factors for CSB among these men. We hypothesized that CSB would be associated with stress-related features and conditions e.
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Participants were eligible for the study if they had served in Iraq, Afghanistan, or surrounding areas or waters. Participants were recruited through multiple outlets, including the Internet e. Mean time since discharge at baseline for the sample was 3. These veterans were then followed up at 3 and 6 months. For all waves of data collection, respondents were interviewed by trained staff using structured telephone interviews.
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These interviews lasted 60—80 minutes at baseline and 30—40 minutes at follow-up. Prior to the interview, participants were mailed a booklet with response scales in order to allow them to follow along with the interview more easily. The sample of men in this analysis was Some of those who had not completed the follow-up interviews had yet
Hyper sexuality and ptsd reach the time-window for the interview, as data collection for the study is on-going.
The use of all three waves of data, although incomplete, allowed us to take advantage of all available information and examine change over time using Generalized Estimating Equations see Statistical analyses section, below.
At the time of data analyses, At 3 months, At 6 months, There were no other differences based on sociodemographic characteristics. The primary aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of CSB among a sample of returning male veterans and to assess sociodemographic and clinical correlates of CSB, including potential risk and protective factors.
Variables "Hyper sexuality and ptsd" grouped and described below.
CSB was the primary dependent variable of interest. The CSB portion of this scale consists of 2 items, answered yes or no. Respondents were considered to have CSB if they responded affirmatively to either of the following two items: Education was coded to a binary variable, representing either less than or equal to or greater than high-school Mean income for
Hyper sexuality and ptsd sample was 3. Marital status was coded into three groups: Psychiatric comorbidity was measured using specific scales, each measured at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months.
Hyper sexuality and ptsd clusters from the PCL were calculated for further exploratory analysis. These clusters included symptoms of re-experiencing, emotional numbing, avoidance, and hyper-arousal Greenberg et al. Items include a history of head injury, losing consciousness for 20 minutes or more, memory loss of the incident, and concussive symptoms such as headaches and dizziness.
Childhood trauma was categorized into two variables: This variable then was log-transformed to improve normality, and standardized to improve interpretability.
Childhood sexual trauma CST was defined as an affirmative response to the following item: For this analysis, the following scales were included: The scales that applied during deployment were measured at baseline only, and the scales for post-deployment experiences were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months.
Respondents were asked how many hours per day they watched television, and how many hours per week they used the Internet, at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months.
Responses were categorized based on tertiles for both items. For television use, this resulted in the following categories: For Internet use, the categories were: All analyses were conducted using Stata Statistical Software version First, we descriptively examined differences between those with and without CSB.
We determined the significance of differences for all sociodemographic
Hyper sexuality and ptsd, potential risk factors, and potential protective factors using t -tests and chi-square tests of independence. We used a less-stringent cut-off of 0. Multivariable modeling was conducted using generalized estimating equations GEE.
This modeling approach appropriately handles both the non-independence among observations resulting from the longitudinal nature of the data and missing data resulting from attrition and non-response. In other words, GEE requires that missingness does not depend on covariates or outcomes.
Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB), also...
Models were specified using a binomial distribution for our CSB outcome variable and a logit link. We used full-maximum likelihood estimation, specifying an auto-regressive 1st order working correlation matrix and estimated robust standard errors. We first examined a model with time as the only independent variable. Covariates measured at baseline were included in the models as time-invariant and those measured at all three time-points were included as time-varying.
These models produced adjusted, time-averaged cross-sectional
Hyper sexuality and ptsd between Hyper sexuality and ptsd and other variables of interest, accounting for autocorrelation between time-points. Effect sizes are presented as odds ratios for categories in relation to a reference group or for every one point increase in the independent variable.
Indicator variables for each symptom
Hyper sexuality and ptsd were added as independent variables in a longitudinal GEE model predicting CSB. The procedures were carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. All subjects were informed about the study and all provided written informed consent.
The prevalence of CSB in this sample at baseline was The prevalence dropped slightly at the 3-month interview This difference was not due to differential attrition — the difference between baseline and 6-month follow-up remained significant among those who had thus far completed all three waves of data collection.
Further, rates of loss to follow-up did not differ between those with and without CSB at wave 1 Differences between men with and without CSB, at baseline, are displayed in Table 1. Both findings "Hyper sexuality and ptsd" indicative of more negative experiences i.
Means SD and percentages are presented in columns. Statistically significant values in bold. Significance values are based on chi-square tests of independence or t -tests. Ranges for continuous variables are presented in parentheses following variable names. The final multivariable model
Hyper sexuality and ptsd displayed in Table 2. Only three variables were statistically significant. Finally, each standard deviation unit of increase in the PCL score i.
Results from multivariable modeling: Factors associated with compulsive sexual behavior. Based on GEE modeling, specifying binomial family, logit link, AR 1 correlation structure, and robust standard errors. The results of this model are displayed in Table 3. All symptom cluster variables were standardized prior to analyses.
This study is the first to examine CSB in a longitudinal sample of male veterans recently returning to civilian life after deployment. Several important conclusions can be drawn from these analyses. First, the prevalence of CSB, although it dropped over the course of follow-up, appeared considerably higher than published population estimates for CSB, suggesting that male veterans may be at particularly high risk for CSB. Secondly, increasing age and traumatic experiences, particularly childhood sexual and physical trauma as well as PTSD symptoms resulting from either combat or other trauma exposure, were significantly associated with CSB.
CSB was more prevalent in this sample of male veterans than might be expected given published population prevalence estimates. At baseline, we found that However, after 6 months, the percentage of CSB had declined to 8. This effect was not likely due to attrition; the difference between baseline and 6-month follow-up remained significant when considering only those who completed all three waves of data collection, and loss to follow-up was approximately equal for those with and without CSB at wave 1.
Rather, between waves 1 and 2, there were roughly equal numbers of remitted cases of CSB and newly identified cases of CSB, while between waves 2 and 3, the number
Hyper sexuality and ptsd remitted cases exceeded the number of newly identified cases, resulting in a drop in prevalence.
Keywords: compulsive sexual behavior, military,...
One possible explanation for this fluctuation in prevalence is that the two-item screening measure captured less severe cases of CSB, which are likely to be less stable over time. In
Hyper sexuality and ptsd current study, only
Hyper sexuality and ptsd. In bivariate and adjusted analyses, age was significantly associated with greater likelihood of CSB.
Older individuals may find frequent sexual compulsions more distressing than younger individuals due to perceptions of normative behavior for specific age groups and family responsibilities. These findings suggest CSB may be a particularly concerning issue among individuals of minority status and with lower education, possibly due to greater frequency of traumatic experiences and more severe PTSD.
can be linked to hyperactive stress systems, new research shows. of sex, a compulsion to perform sexual acts, a loss of control, or sexual habits that carry Veterans diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder often are. I remember whenever I thought of rape victims in high school, the movie, “Speak” immediately flashed before my eyes.
For those who haven't. In movies and in literature, characters with PTSD or other trauma-related issues Examples of these behaviors include self-injury, hyper-sexuality, compulsive.
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