Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction or a combination of these to persons of the opposite sex or genderthe same sex or
Non-heterosexual bias, or to both sexes or more than one gender.
These attractions are generally subsumed under heterosexualityhomosexualityand bisexuality  while asexuality the lack of sexual attraction to others is sometimes identified as the fourth category.
Sexual orientation is traditionally defined as including heterosexualitybisexualityand homosexualitywhile asexuality is considered the fourth category of sexual orientation by some researchers and has been defined as the absence of a traditional sexual orientation. An asexual has little to no sexual attraction to people. Some people prefer simply to follow an individual's self-definition or identity. Scientific and professional understanding is that "the core attractions that form the basis for adult sexual orientation typically emerge between middle childhood and early adolescence".
Many cultures use identity labels to describe people who express these attractions. In the United States, the most frequent labels are lesbians women attracted to womengay men men attracted to menand bisexual people men or women attracted to both sexes. However, some people may use different labels or none at all".
They additionally state that sexual orientation "is distinct from other components of sex and gender, including biological sex the anatomical, physiological, and genetic characteristics associated with being male or femalegender identity the psychological sense of being male or femaleand social gender role the cultural norms that define feminine and masculine behavior ".
Sexual identity and sexual behavior are closely related to sexual orientation, but they are distinguished, with sexual identity referring to an individual's conception of themselves, behavior referring to actual sexual acts performed by the individual, and orientation referring to "fantasies, attachments and longings. The term may, however, reflect a certain cultural context and particular stage of transition in societies which are gradually dealing with integrating sexual minorities.
In studies related to sexual orientation, when dealing with the degree to which a person's sexual attractionsbehaviors and identity match, scientists usually use the terms concordance or discordance.
Thus, a woman who is attracted to other women, but calls herself heterosexual and only has sexual relations with men, can be said to experience discordance between her sexual orientation homosexual or lesbian and her sexual identity and behaviors heterosexual.
Sexual identity may also be used to describe a person's perception of his or her own sexrather than sexual orientation. The term sexual preference has a similar meaning to sexual orientationand the two terms are often used interchangeably, but sexual preference suggests a degree of voluntary choice.
Androphilia and gynephilia or gynecophilia are terms used in behavioral science to describe sexual attraction, as an alternative to a homosexual and heterosexual conceptualization. They are used for identifying a subject's object of attraction without attributing a sex assignment or gender identity to the
Non-heterosexual bias. Related terms such as pansexual and polysexual do not make any such assignations to the subject.
Same gender loving SGL is considered to be more than a different term for gay; it
Non-heterosexual bias the concept of love into the discussion. The complexity of transgender orientation is also more completely understood within this perspective.
Using androphilia and gynephilia can avoid confusion and offense when describing people in non-western cultures, as well as when describing intersex and transgender people. Psychiatrist Anil Aggrawal explains that androphilia, along with gynephilia, "is needed to overcome immense difficulties in characterizing the sexual orientation of trans "Non-heterosexual bias" and trans women.
Any attempt to classify them may not only cause confusion but arouse offense among the affected subjects. In such cases, while defining sexual attraction, it is best to focus on the object of their attraction
Non-heterosexual bias than on the sex or gender of the subject.
This usage is particularly advantageous when discussing the partners of transsexual or intersexed individuals.
Non-heterosexual bias newer terms also do not carry the social weight of the former ones. Some researchers advocate use of the terminology to avoid bias inherent in Western conceptualizations of human sexuality.
Writing about the Samoan fa'afafine demographic, sociologist Johanna Schmidt writes that in cultures where a third gender is recognized, a term like "homosexual transsexual" does not align with cultural categories.
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Some researchers, such as Bruce Bagemihlhave criticized the
Non-heterosexual bias "heterosexual" and "homosexual"
Non-heterosexual bias confusing and degrading. These labels thereby ignore the individual's personal sense of gender identity taking precedence over biological sex, rather than the other way around.
The earliest writers on sexual orientation usually understood it to be intrinsically linked to the subject's own sex.
Heterosexism is a system of...
For example, it was thought that a typical female-bodied person who is attracted to female-bodied persons would have masculine attributes, and vice versa. However, this understanding of homosexuality as sexual inversion was disputed
Non-heterosexual bias the time, and, through the second half of the twentieth century, Non-heterosexual bias identity came to be increasingly seen as a phenomenon distinct from sexual orientation. Transgender and cisgender people may be attracted to men, women, or both, although the prevalence of different sexual orientations is quite different in these two populations.
An individual homosexual, heterosexual or bisexual person may be masculine, feminine, or androgynousand in addition, many members and supporters of lesbian and gay communities now see the "gender-conforming heterosexual" and
Non-heterosexual bias "gender-nonconforming homosexual" as negative stereotypes. Nevertheless, studies by J. Michael Bailey and Kenneth Zucker found a majority of the gay men and lesbians sampled reporting various degrees of gender-nonconformity during their childhood years. This article presents suggestions for...
Transgender people today identify with the sexual orientation that corresponds with their gender; meaning that a trans woman who is solely attracted to women would often identify as a lesbian. A trans man solely attracted to women would be a straight man. Sexual orientation
Non-heterosexual bias greater intricacy when non-binary understandings of both sex male, female, or intersex and gender man, woman, transgender, third genderetc.
Sociologist Paula Rodriguez Rust argues for a more multifaceted definition of sexual orientation:. Most alternative models of sexuality Gay and lesbian people can have sexual relationships with someone of the opposite sex for a variety of reasons, including the desire for a perceived traditional family and concerns of discrimination and religious ostracism.
Often, sexual orientation and sexual orientation identity are not distinguished, which can impact accurately assessing sexual identity and whether or not sexual orientation is able to change; sexual "Non-heterosexual bias" identity can change throughout an individual's life, and may or may not align with biological sex, sexual behavior or actual sexual orientation. Some research suggests that "[f]or some [people] the focus of sexual interest will shift at various points through the life span Innate bisexuality is an idea introduced by Sigmund Freud.
According to this theory, all humans are born bisexual in a very broad sense of the term, that of incorporating general aspects of both sexes. In Freud's view, this
Non-heterosexual bias true anatomically and therefore also psychologically, with sexual attraction to both sexes being one part of this psychological bisexuality.
Freud believed that in the course of sexual development the masculine side would normally become dominant
Non-heterosexual bias men and the feminine side in
Non-heterosexual bias, but that as adults everyone still has desires derived from both the masculine and the feminine sides of their natures. Freud did not claim that everyone is bisexual in the sense of feeling the same level of sexual attraction to both genders.
The exact causes for the
Non-heterosexual bias of a particular sexual orientation have yet to be established. To date, a lot of research has been conducted to determine the influence of genetics, hormonal action, development dynamics, social and cultural influences—which has led many to think that biology and environment factors play a complex role in forming it.
It was once thought that homosexuality was the result of faulty psychological development, resulting from childhood
Non-heterosexual bias and troubled relationships, including childhood sexual abuse.
It has been found that this was based on prejudice and misinformation. Research has identified several biological factors which may be related to the development of sexual orientation, including genesprenatal hormonesand brain structure.
Anti-LGBT bias feels normal if...
No single controlling cause has been identified, and
Non-heterosexual bias is continuing in this area. Though researchers generally believe that sexual orientation is not determined by any one factor but by
Non-heterosexual bias combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences,    with biological factors involving a complex interplay of genetic factors and the early uterine environment,   they favor biological models for the cause.
Current scientific investigation usually seeks to find biological explanations for the adoption of a particular sexual orientation. Genes may be related to the
Non-heterosexual bias of sexual orientation. A twin study from appears to exclude genes as a major factor,  while a twin study from found that homosexuality was explained by both genes and environmental factors.
The authors concluded that "Non-heterosexual bias" findings, taken in context with previous work, suggest that genetic variation in each of these regions contributes to development of the important psychological trait of male sexual orientation. The hormonal theory of sexuality holds that just as exposure to certain hormones plays a role in fetal sex differentiationhormonal exposure also influences the
Non-heterosexual bias orientation that emerges later in the adult.
Fetal hormones may be seen as either the primary influence upon adult sexual orientation or as a co-factor interacting with genes or environmental and social conditions. For humans, the norm is that females possess two X sex chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y. The default developmental pathway for a human fetus being female, the Y chromosome is what induces the changes necessary to shift to the male developmental pathway.
This differentiation process is driven by androgen hormones, mainly testosterone and dihydrotestosterone DHT. The newly formed testicles in the fetus are responsible for the secretion of androgens, that will cooperate in driving the sexual differentiation of the developing fetus, including its brain.
This results in sexual differences between males and females. Recent studies found an increased chance of homosexuality in men whose mothers previously carried to term many male children.
This effect is nullified if the man is left-handed. Known as the fraternal birth order FBO effect, this theory has been backed up by strong
Non-heterosexual bias of its prenatal origin, although no evidence Non-heterosexual bias far has linked it to an exact prenatal mechanism. However, research suggests that this may be of immunological origin, caused by a maternal immune reaction against a substance crucial to male fetal development during pregnancy, which becomes increasingly likely after every male gestation.
As a result of this immune effect, alterations in later-born males' prenatal development have been thought to occur. This process, known as the
Non-heterosexual bias immunization hypothesis MIHwould begin when cells from a male fetus enter the mother's circulation during pregnancy or while giving birth. These Y-linked proteins would not Non-heterosexual bias recognized in the mother's immune system because she is female, causing her to develop antibodies which would travel through the placental barrier into the fetal compartment. Sexual orientation is an enduring...
From here, the anti-male bodies would then cross the blood—brain barrier of the developing fetal brain, altering "Non-heterosexual bias" brain structures relative to sexual orientation, causing the exposed son to be more attracted to men over women.
There is no substantive evidence to support the suggestion that early childhood experiences, parenting, sexual abuse, or other adverse life events influence sexual orientation. However, studies do find that aspects of sexuality expression have an experiential basis and that parental attitudes towards a particular sexual orientation may affect how children of the parents experiment with behaviors related to a certain sexual orientation. The American Academy of Pediatrics in stated: The mechanisms for the development of a particular sexual orientation remain unclear, but the current literature and most scholars in the field state that one's sexual orientation is not
Non-heterosexual bias choice; that is, individuals do not choose to be homosexual or heterosexual. Heterosexism is a system of...
A variety of theories about the influences on sexual orientation have been proposed. Sexual orientation probably is not determined by any one factor but by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences.
In recent decades, biologically based theories have been favored by experts. Although there
Non-heterosexual bias to be controversy and uncertainty as to the genesis of the variety of human sexual orientations, there is no scientific evidence that abnormal parenting, sexual abuse, or other adverse life events "Non-heterosexual bias" sexual orientation.
Current knowledge suggests that sexual orientation is usually established during
Non-heterosexual bias childhood. Currently, there is no scientific consensus about the specific factors that cause an individual to become heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual — including possible biological, psychological, or social effects of the parents' sexual orientation.
However, the available evidence indicates that the vast majority of lesbian and gay adults were raised by heterosexual parents and the vast majority of children raised by lesbian and gay parents eventually grow up to be heterosexual. The Royal College of Psychiatrists in stated: Despite almost a century of psychoanalytic and psychological speculation, there is no substantive evidence to support the suggestion that the nature of parenting or early childhood experiences play any role in the formation of a person's fundamental heterosexual or homosexual orientation.
It would appear that sexual orientation is biological in nature,
Non-heterosexual bias by a complex interplay of genetic factors and the early uterine environment. Sexual orientation is therefore not a choice, though sexual behaviour clearly is. The American Psychiatric Association stated: No one knows what causes heterosexuality, homosexuality, or bisexuality.
Heterosexism is a system of attitudes, bias, and discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships. It can include the presumption that other people are heterosexual or that. Non-heterosexual persons should keep their
Non-heterosexual bias orientations private (i.e., they should remain "closeted").
p. 15; The attitude that. The demographics of sexual orientation vary significantly, and estimates for the LGBT. perceived bias, finding that % of men had engaged
Non-heterosexual bias both heterosexual People aged 18–29 were the most likely to identify
Non-heterosexual bias non- heterosexual.
The veiled method increased self-reports of non-heterosexual by current best practices is not always sufficient to eliminate bias,” note the.
Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction or a combination of these to persons of the opposite sex or gender , the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender. These attractions are generally subsumed under heterosexuality , homosexuality , and bisexuality ,   while asexuality the lack of sexual attraction to others is sometimes identified as the fourth category.
These categories are aspects of the more nuanced nature of sexual identity and terminology. Androphilia describes sexual attraction to masculinity ; gynephilia describes the sexual attraction to femininity. Scientists do not know the exact cause of sexual orientation, but they theorize that it is caused by a complex interplay of genetic , hormonal , and environmental influences.
Sexual orientation is reported primarily within biology and psychology including sexology , but it is also a subject area in anthropology , history including social constructionism , and law ,  and there are other explanations that relate to sexual orientation and culture.
Sexual orientation is traditionally defined as including heterosexuality , bisexuality , and homosexuality , while asexuality is considered the fourth category of sexual orientation by some researchers and has been defined as the absence of a traditional sexual orientation. An asexual has little to no sexual attraction to people.
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F or a single statistic to be the primary propaganda weapon for a radical political movement is unusual. Kinsey did not believe that sexual identity was fixed and simply categorised, and perhaps his most lasting contribution was his scale, still used today, in which individuals are rated from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively homosexual on a scale of 0 to 6. He acknowledged that people could move on the scale during their lifetime, and indeed Kinsey himself is said to have moved from a 1 or 2 when younger to a 3 or 4 in middle age.
This did not stop this figure being strongly disputed by conservatives, who were overjoyed when, in , the US National Survey of Men estimated that only 2. Statistics had become part of a political battleground, with heated arguments back and forth, but unfortunately without any agreed definition: When it became necessary to predict what would happen to the Aids epidemic, it was vital to find out what people actually did with each other.
Surveys started to distinguish between identity what sexual orientation you claim ; attraction who you find sexually attractive ; and behaviour whether you have had same-sex experiences. The numbers for each area turn out to be very different. The National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles Natsal is the most reliable source of information on what Britons do in private, and has taken place every 10 years since But there is a clear gradient with age, with a much higher proportion in younger people, particularly in younger women: Sexual identity is also now part of official government statistics.
So is this evidence of bias in the Natsal participants or a sign of reluctance to open up in a general household survey that is largely concerned with mundane matters such as shopping habits? That works out to a total of nearly 1.
Republish our articles for free, on the internet or in print, under Original Commons licence. In the In accord States, public support of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender LGBT community has increased in recent years.
Nevertheless, violence against sexual minorities remains a primary public health problem in the U. A recent study concluded that approximately 50 percent of LGBT adults experience bias-motivated onslaught at some point. For on occasion highly publicized act of murderousness a harm toward sexual minorities, such as the recent mass shooting at a gay nightclub in Orlando , there are many more physical and verbal assaults, attempted assaults, acts of property invoice or intimidations which are not in any degree reported to authorities , subside alone publicized by the media.
What spurs on these acts of violence? Can we do anything to prevent them? Preconceived notion toward sexual minorities is implanted in what psychologists call erotic stigma.
At the societal on, sexual stigma is referred to as heterosexism.
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What is it we like most about sex? The demographics of sexual orientation vary significantly, and estimates for the LGBT . perceived bias, finding that % of men had engaged in both heterosexual People aged 18–29 were the most likely to identify as non- heterosexual. Kinsey did not believe that sexual identity was fixed and simply how you think of yourself”: a) heterosexual/straight; b) gay/lesbian; c) bisexual, d) other? So is this evidence of bias in the Natsal participants or a sign of..
Non-heterosexual young women have a higher rate of unintended pregnancy than their heterosexual peers, but their fertility behaviors are understudied.
These data include weekly reports of relationships, sex, and contraceptive use over 30 months. We compare the relationships and fertility behaviors of three groups: We find that mostly heterosexual and LGBTQ women bear oneself differently from exclusively heterosexual women in ways verisimilar to elevate their chance of unintended pregnancy: Mostly heterosexual women resemble LGBTQ women in their contraceptive behavior but have significantly more intercourse with men, which may increase their pregnancy risk relative to both LGBTQ and exclusively heterosexual women.
THIS ARTICLE PRESENTS SUGGESTIONS FOR AVOIDING HETEROSEXUAL BIAS IN LANGUAGE CONCERNING BECAUSE NO UNIVERSAL AGREEMENT EXISTS ON TERMINOLOGY,... HETEROSEXISM IS A SYSTEM OF ATTITUDES, BIAS, AND DISCRIMINATION IN FAVOR OF OPPOSITE-SEX SEXUALITY AND...
One hundred years ago, people had a very different idea of what it means to be heterosexual. Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction to persons of the . People who have... Heterosexism is a system of attitudes , bias , and discrimination in... The Dorland's Medical Dictionary defined heterosexuality as an “abnormal or this educational...
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What percentage of the population considers themselves gay?
The demographics of sexual orientation vary significantly, and estimates for the LGBT population are subject to controversy and ensuing debates.
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For instance, a highly religious heterosexual may fear that a same-sex relationship or marriage poses a threat to his or her own values and beliefs. Social attitudes Prejudice Violence. The status norm reflects the view that men should sit atop the social hierarchy, be successful, and garner respect and admiration from others. Compared to the heterosexual population, the homosexual population was much more likely to be male, single, and younger than 65, as well as to be living alone.
Child marriage Child pornography law Child prostitution Child sex tourism. Biology Birth order Demographics Environment Heterosexual—homosexual continuum Homosexuality and psychology Kinsey scale Klein Grid Neuroscience Prenatal hormones Sexual inversion Sexual orientation change efforts Conversion therapy Sexual orientation identity Timeline of sexual orientation and medicine.
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