LGBT themes in comics are a relatively new concept, as lesbiangaybisexualand transgender LGBT themes and characters were historically omitted intentionally from the content of comic books and their comic strip predecessors, due to either censorship or the perception that comics were for children.
With only minimal attention to LGBT characters in the early part of the century using innuendosubtext and inferenceto out-right acceptance later on and into the Twenty-first century, exploring challenges of coming-out and discrimination in society, LGBT themes in comics reflect the change towards acceptance in worldwide attitudes with homosexualitycross-dressing and gender dysphoria.
Queer theorists have noted that LGBT characters in mainstream comic books are usually shown as assimilated into heterosexual society, whereas in alternative comics the diversity and uniqueness of LGBT culture is emphasized. With any mention of homosexuality in mainstream United States comics forbidden by the Comics Code Authority CCA between and earlier attempts Stor fiol heterosexual meaning exploring these issues in the US took the form of subtle hints or subtext regarding a character's sexual orientation.
Independently published one-off comic books and series, produced by gay creators featured autobiographical storylines tackling political issues of interest to LGBT readers, began in the mids, gaining popularity through the s.
Since the s LGBT themes have become more common in mainstream US comics, including in a number of titles in which a gay character is the star. Comic strips have also dealt in and innuendo, their wide distribution in print newspapers and magazines limiting their inclusion of controversial material.
The first openly gay characters in the US appeared in prominent strips in the Stor fiol heterosexual meaning s; representation of LGBT issues in these titles causes vociferous reaction, both praise and condemnation. A lack of censorship and greater acceptance of comics as a medium for adult entertainment in Europe has led European comics to be more inclusive from an earlier date, leading to less controversy about the representation of LGBT characters in their pages.
Japanese manga tradition has included Stor fiol heterosexual meaning of girls' comics that feature homosexual relationships since the s, in the form of yaoi and yuri.
These works are often extremely romantic and idealized, and include archetypal characters that often do not identify as gay or lesbian.
Since the Japanese "gay boom" of the s, a body of manga by queer creators aimed at LGBT customers has been established, including both bara manga for gay men and yuri aimed at lesbians, which
Stor fiol heterosexual meaning have more realistic and autobiographical themes. Pornographic manga also often includes sexualised depictions of lesbians and intersex people.
The Lambda Literary Foundationrecognizing notable literature for LGBT themes with their "Lammys" awards sincecreated a new category in for graphic works.
Early comic strips Stor fiol heterosexual meaning avoided overt treatment of gay issues, though examples of homosexual subtext have been identified. The — edition of Milton Caniff "Stor fiol heterosexual meaning" Terry and the Pirates features a primary villain, Sanjak, who has been interpreted by some as a lesbian with designs on the hero's girlfriend. When Lynn Johnston 's For Better or For Worse explored the coming out of a teenaged character init provoked a vigorous reaction from conservative groups.
The Pulitzer board said the strip "sensitively depicted a youth's disclosure of his homosexuality and its effect on his family and friends. In most widely circulated strips, LGBT characters remained as supporting figures into the 21st century, with some, including Candorville and The Boondocksfeaturing occasional appearances by gay characters.
The conservative strip Mallard Fillmore occasionally approached gay issues from a critical perspective; these storylines have been described as "insulting" to LGBT people.
Since the late s specifically gay publications have also included comic strips, in which LGBT themes are ubiquitous. Dykes to Watch Out For is known for its social and political commentary and depictions of characters from all walks of life.
A Family Tragicomic was lauded by many media outlets as among the best books of the year. Ethan Green has also been adapted into a live-action feature film.
LGBT themes were found first in underground or alternative comicsoften published by small independent presses or self-published. Such comics frequently advocated political positions and included depictions of sex, usually not intended solely to cause arousal but included as part of the exploration of themes including gender and sexuality.
Clay Wilson in Zap Comix 3 featured explicit sexual homosexual acts and was instrumental in making other underground cartoonists approach taboo subjects. However, gay characters featured in underground comics from toand when they did they were usually lisping caricatures and comic transvestites.
Eventually comics appeared aimed at a gay audience: Notable publications included Gay Comixwhich was created in by Howard Crusefeatured the work of LGBT artists, and had close ties with the gay liberation movement. Much of the early content was autobiographical, but more diverse themes were explored in later editions. Autobiographical themes included falling in love, coming out, repression, and sex.
Excerpts from Gay Comix are included in the anthology Gay Comicsone of the earliest histories of the subject. An Anthology of Gay Male Comics and its sequels collect works by a range of artists and cartoonists. The work of "every gay cartoonist of note" at the time appeared in the series, including works by Howard CruseJeffrey A. His drawings frequently feature two or more men either immediately preceding or during explicit sexual activity.
La Sida was aimed at a young audience and used humour to de-dramatise the subject, with HIV status indicated a metaphorical "little green monster".
Such educational comics have been criticised for ignoring the special relevance the subject has to the LGBT community, with homosexuality marginalized in favour of depicting HIV as a threat to conventional heterosexual relationships.
This has been blamed on the continuing perception that comics are for young people, and as such should be "universalised" rather than targeting specific groups, and hence are heteronormativefailing to provide characters that LGBT-identfying young people can identify with.
In Northwest Press began publishing LBGTQ themed works, focusing primarily on graphic novels and anthologies of artist's shorter works. No Straight Linesa
Stor fiol heterosexual meaning published by Fantagraphics Books edited by Justin Hallpresented an overview of comics by and about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people since the s. Mainstream comics have historically excluded gay characters, with superhero comics in particular and the publishing houses Marvel and DC, the two largest publishers in the genre, and were criticized for their lack of inclusivity.
For much of the 20th century, creators were strongly discouraged from depicting gay relationships in comic books, which were regarded as a medium for children. The CCA itself came into being in "Stor fiol heterosexual meaning" to Fredric Wertham 's Seduction of the Innocentin which comic book creators were accused of attempting to negatively influence children with images of violence and sexuality, including subliminal homosexuality.
Wertham claimed that Wonder Woman 's strength and independence made her a lesbian,  and stated that "The Batman type of story may stimulate children to homosexual fantasies. In recent years the number of LGBT characters in mainstream superhero comics has increased greatly. At first gay characters appeared in supporting roles, but their roles have become increasingly prominent.
The Encyclopedia of Gay Histories and Cultures notes that gay subtext can be found in DC Comics publications as early as the Golden Age of Comic Bookswith readers inferring homosexuality between superheroes and their same-sex sidekicks and on the
Stor fiol heterosexual meaning Paradise Island.
Batman 's relationship with Robin has famously come under scrutinyin spite of the majority of creators associated with the character denying that the character is gay. In the first appearance of the Nightmastera fat man who seems to be a closet homosexual gay basher repeatedly calls Jim Rook a "cutie pie", compliments his hair, and grabs his girlfriend, saying to Rook "And what?
You gonna hit me with your purse? Stor fiol heterosexual meaning characters, including the Enchantress describing them as "filthy disgusting men" and a police helicopter pilot named Ed screaming about "fags" are influenced into attempting to crush the rally by a seven-headed spirit.
Thanks to the actions of the Spectre, Doctor FateDeadmanMadame Xanadu later herself revealed to be bisexual  Stor fiol heterosexual meaning, and Ben Turnerthe men are saved. In 's Wonder Woman Annual 1, Kevin Mayer, brother of Diana's late publicist Myndi Mayer, shows up at her will reading, saying she was the only member of the family who didn't hate him for being gay. Mitch Sekofsky, mechanic for Task Force Xis a gay dad.
Simon La Grievethe organization's head psychiatrist, refers to this as his "choice of sexuality" and wonders how Sekofsky's son is adjusting. John Constantine dealt with gay bashers in Hellblazer 6 and 7 and Swamp Thing 74 In the latter issue, Constantine, having jumped from a train at the end of Hellblazer 6, is found by gay bashers in a weakened state and severely beaten until rescued by Swamp Thing.
While Constantine is not gay he is bisexual  and is mostly sexually active with womensome of his gay friends were beaten and hospitalized, and he tried to protect them. In this case, the gay bashers were working at the behest the demon, Nergal.
Transsexual themes were explored in The Sandman: Green Lantern also has a lesbian couple, Lee and Li, as supporting characters. The comic book Manhunter which focused on a female lawyer hunting down super villains who dodged trial was notable for featuring the gay supporting character of Damon Matthewsa well-adjusted gay lawyer who later starts dating superhero Obsidian and also Manhunter's son and successor, Ramsey Spencerwho is also openly gay and dates the metahuman hero and his partner named Justin.
The Animated Series without any stated sexual preference, was eventually introduced in the comic books as a lesbian and made considerably more butch. InDC launched its The New 52 program, which introduced a number of new titles.
Stor fiol heterosexual meaning addition to a new Batwoman series, DC released Voodoowhich featured an African American bisexual woman as the title character. Wonder Woman is now canonically bisexual, and among her same-sex romantic interests is her companion Amazon Kasia. Marvel Comics ' incorporation of LGBT themes has been unfavorably compared with that of DC; its use of gay characters has been described as "less prolific but "Stor fiol heterosexual meaning" deliberate".
However, these policies did not stop creators from slipping in gay characters and themes; J. DeMatteis introduced Arnie Roth, a childhood friend of Steve Rogerswho comes to Cap seeking help in rescuing his "roommate" Michael.
Cap rescues Arnie and reassures him that his love for Michael is as genuine as Cap's own love for his girlfriend, Sharon. Subsequent official character biographies have confirmed Arnie Roth as gay. As ofthese policies are no longer enforced and LGBT characters appear regularly in Marvel comics. Alpha Flight ' s Northstara member of the original Alpha Flight superhero team, was the first major gay character created by Marvel Comics.
Creator John Byrne said that Northstar was planned Stor fiol heterosexual meaning be gay from his inception in Criticism has been levelled at the fact that in 30 years Northstar has never been shown kissing another man,  though he finally kissed his boyfriend Kyle in the first issue of the relaunch of the series.
Northstar eventually became a member of the X-Men. During his time in this team he became a mentor to gay teenage mutant Anolewho later became a Young X-Men member along with another gay teen, Graymalkin. Ultimate X-Men depicts an alternate version of Northstar who is in a same-sex relationship with that dimension's Colossus. Inwriter Ivan Velez, Jr.
She was shown sharing a bed with a chubby boyfriend named Bernard Drabble in The Legion of Night Octoberwhich was written by her creator, Steve Gerber later writer of the GLAAD Award-nominated Hard Timewho thought making her related to both Ghost Riders was bad writing, saying that Marvel should change its name to DC for " Deliverance Comics" for being so inbred he did not read the issues in question, nor was he told of Jennifer's newfound lesbianism.
InMarvel revived Rawhide Kid in their Marvel MAX imprint,  introducing the first openly gay comic book character to star in his own magazine. The Young Avengers series, which debuted infeatured two gay teenager major characters, Hulkling and Wiccanfrom its inception.
The characters' sexuality was criticised by some readers and defended by the writers in an extended series of letters on the title's letters page. Xavin was created by author Brian K. Vaughan and artist Adrian Alphona, and debuted in Runaways vol. One comic includes a development which suggests that Hercules had an off-panel sexual encounter with gay male superhero Northstar at an earlier point in time. In the "All-New X-Men" comic book storyline, the mind-reading mutant Jean Grey asks Bobby why he calls women "hot," when she knows he is gay.
In September Archie Comics introduced an openly gay character, Kevin Keller in Veronicathough it was only published in the U. Kevin beats Jughead in a burger-eating contest,   and he tells Jughead that he's not interested in Veronica because he's gay. Unbeknownst to Kevin, Jughead has a score to settle with Veronica. So, when Jughead requests for Kevin not tell Veronica about his sexuality, Kevin willingly agrees. The bulk of
Stor fiol heterosexual meaning story is about Veronica's cluelessness.
As widely considered traditional, predictable, and wholesome publishers to the nth degree for generations, Archie Comics' open recognition of homosexuality through the addition of Kevin Keller came as a surprise to many readers.
However, as Lyle Masaki of AfterElton. The Married Life series, with the issue depicting his wedding becoming one of the fastest selling Archie comics in decades.