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Preventing sexual harassment on college campuses

opinion

January 19, ; Accepted date: March 24, ; Published date: Newlands R, Donohue WO. In the United States Congress established an act requiring all federally funded universities to provide primary prevention for sexual-violence and awareness training to all incoming students and employees.

In order to comply with federal mandates and to protect students from sexual violence, only those prevention programs that empirically demonstrate decreased rates of sexual violence should be employed.

To assist administrators in adopting the most efficacious prevention programs, an extensive review of sexual-violence interventions examining perpetration and victimization as outcomes with U. S college students was conducted. Based on the findings, recommendations are provided for administrators and researchers. Specifically, we recommend using separate gender programs, as those targeting alcohol Preventing sexual harassment on college campuses and self-defense have shown the most promise for women and those addressing consent have shown the most promise with Preventing sexual harassment on college campuses. Parent Based Intervention; IR: Motivational Interviewing with feedback; C: Sexual assault and rape on college campuses have received a great deal of public attention in recent years, particularly from the White House and popular media.

The aftermath of sexual victimization is often severe and far-reaching. The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey [ 4 ] found that, compared with their non-victimized counterparts, victims of sexual violence were significantly more likely to report adverse physiological health outcomes and mental-health issues including, but not limited to, chronic pain, IBS, diabetes, and PTSD.

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Given this ten-fold disparity, this review will focus on the sexual victimization of women. Since the s, the adjudication of rape and sexual-assault Preventing sexual harassment on college campuses on college campuses has fallen increasingly under the jurisdiction university administrators, instead of under the criminal justice system [ 47 ].

Sexual assault and rape on university campuses is a serious problem, in terms of the consequences suffered by the victims and by those universities that fail to comply with the law regarding the handling of such cases [ 4 ]. As ofCongress established the Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act [ 8 ],which requires all incoming students and employees to undergo training for sexual-violence awareness and prevention. Many campuses struggle to comply with this mandate, partly because little guidance has been provided to universities regarding the implementation of prevention programs "Preventing sexual harassment on college campuses" the adjudication of reported cases.

To protect students, and to safeguard the institution from failing to comply with Title IX [ 10 ], universities must employ the best available interventions. A recent review by Amar et al. The review by Amar, Strout, Simpson, Cardiello and Beckford provided no information regarding what percentage of the reviewed sample had implemented evidence-based prevention programs — for example, programs tested for effectiveness in randomized controlled trials.

The Amar et al. To what extend do sexual violence prevention efforts on college campuses represent a thorough commitment to providing the highest quality sexualviolence services? The fear is that insufficient concern has been expressed about the quality of sexual-violence prevention programming. This question should guide practical decisions about which sexual-violence prevention approach universities and similar institutions ought to adopt. In addressing this question, this review explores issues related to effect sizes, dosage, generalization of effects over time, manualization, understanding of mechanisms of change, program cost, and other practical considerations.

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Currently, significant heterogeneity exists across U. This variability can be due to a variety of factors, including: A more ideal situation would be one that 1 uses prevention approaches with the best evidence for the largest impact on actual rates of sexual violence; and 2 incorporates a quality-improvement orientation in which data on stakeholder satisfaction and outcomes are constantly collected and evaluated. A data-based approach to improving outcomes is one that collects Preventing sexual harassment on college campuses evaluates data, such as reductions in mediating variables e.

Every college administrator must consider the following question: The general outcomes question is more nuanced, as suggested by Gordon Paul in the psychotherapy literature: Only studies conducted with U.

One hundred and fifty eight studies were initially identified; after further analysis, studies were excluded due to lack of quantitative measures, use of noncollegiate U. Given the many barriers to the empirical investigation of rape prevention, these 28 studies were organized and evaluated on the following criteria:. Whether dosage was examined programs vary from onetime very brief presentations to more prolonged multisession formats — to determine what dosage is sufficient.

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Whether and to what extent program implementer variables e. Whether the study measured social-validity criteria — to examine the extent to which different stakeholders rated the programs positively or negatively. Whether the study's outcome variables were psychometrically adequate e.

Whether the proposed mechanisms of change were theoretically adequate — to aid in the replication and development of future interventions.

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