January 19, ; Accepted date: March 24, ; Published date: Newlands R, Donohue WO. In the United States Congress established an act requiring all federally funded universities to provide primary prevention for sexual-violence and awareness training to all incoming students and employees.
In order to comply with federal mandates and to protect students from sexual violence, only those prevention programs that empirically demonstrate decreased rates of sexual violence should be employed.
To assist administrators in adopting the most efficacious prevention programs, an extensive review of sexual-violence interventions examining perpetration and victimization as outcomes with U. S college students was conducted. Based on the findings, recommendations are provided for administrators and researchers. Specifically, we recommend using separate gender programs, as those targeting alcohol
Preventing sexual harassment on college campuses and self-defense have shown the most promise for women and those addressing consent have shown the most promise with Preventing sexual harassment on college campuses. Parent Based Intervention; IR: Motivational Interviewing with feedback; C: Sexual assault and rape on college campuses have received a great deal of public attention in recent years, particularly from the White House and popular media.
The aftermath of sexual victimization is often severe and far-reaching. The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey [ 4 ] found that, compared with their non-victimized counterparts, victims of sexual violence were significantly more likely to report adverse physiological health outcomes and mental-health issues including, but not limited to, chronic pain, IBS, diabetes, and PTSD.
Given this ten-fold disparity, this review will focus on the sexual victimization of women. Since the s, the adjudication of rape and sexual-assault
Preventing sexual harassment on college campuses on college campuses has fallen increasingly under the jurisdiction university administrators, instead of under the criminal justice system [ 47 ].
Sexual assault and rape on university campuses is a serious problem, in terms of the consequences suffered by the victims and by those universities that fail to comply with the law regarding the handling of such cases [ 4 ]. As ofCongress established the Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act [ 8 ],which requires all incoming students and employees to undergo training for sexual-violence awareness and prevention. Many campuses struggle to comply with this mandate, partly because little guidance has been provided to universities regarding the implementation of prevention programs "Preventing sexual harassment on college campuses" the adjudication of reported cases.
To protect students, and to safeguard the institution from failing to comply with Title IX [ 10 ], universities must employ the best available interventions. A recent review by Amar et al. The review by Amar, Strout, Simpson, Cardiello and Beckford provided no information regarding what percentage of the reviewed sample had implemented evidence-based prevention programs — for example, programs tested for effectiveness in randomized controlled trials.
The Amar et al. To what extend do sexual violence prevention efforts on college campuses represent a thorough commitment to providing the highest quality sexualviolence services? The fear is that insufficient concern has been expressed about the quality of sexual-violence prevention programming. This question should guide practical decisions about which sexual-violence prevention approach universities and similar institutions ought to adopt. In addressing this question, this review explores issues related to effect sizes, dosage, generalization of effects over time, manualization, understanding of mechanisms of change, program cost, and other practical considerations.
Currently, significant heterogeneity exists across U. This variability can be due to a variety of factors, including: A more ideal situation would be one that 1 uses prevention approaches with the best evidence for the largest impact on actual rates of sexual violence; and 2 incorporates a quality-improvement orientation in which data on stakeholder satisfaction and outcomes are constantly collected and evaluated. A data-based approach to improving outcomes is one that collects
Preventing sexual harassment on college campuses evaluates data, such as reductions in mediating variables e.
Every college administrator must consider the following question: The general outcomes question is more nuanced, as suggested by Gordon Paul in the psychotherapy literature: Only studies conducted with U.
One hundred and fifty eight studies were initially identified; after further analysis, studies were excluded due to lack of quantitative measures, use of noncollegiate U. Given the many barriers to the empirical investigation of rape prevention, these 28 studies were organized and evaluated on the following criteria:. Whether dosage was examined programs vary from onetime very brief presentations to more prolonged multisession formats — to determine what dosage is sufficient.
Whether and to what extent program implementer variables e. Whether the study measured social-validity criteria — to examine the extent to which different stakeholders rated the programs positively or negatively. Whether the study's outcome variables were psychometrically adequate e.
Whether the proposed mechanisms of change were theoretically adequate — to aid in the replication and development of future interventions.
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Whether the interventions were manualized — to evaluate the extent to which they can be faithfully disseminated. Whether implementer and subject blindness was present — to mitigate the impact of allegiance effects or placebo effects.
Whether there was an attempt to understand subject x treatment interactions — to determine whether the program was differentially effective for certain kinds of individuals and evaluate any need to culturally tailor programs. Whether cost was explicated — to aid administrator in understand budgeting implications. Whether the study has been independently replicated — to determine whether the interventions effects generalize beyond the original sample.
Admittedly, this is a tall order. However, the importance and pragmatics of understanding the meaning of evidence-based effective prevention programming necessitates this level of detail and scrutiny. Future research can be guided by a more
Preventing sexual harassment on college campuses understanding of the pragmatics of these questions. We can all take steps...
In order to maintain a rigorous scientific approach, this review aims to analyze both the weaknesses and strengths of the evidence base so work can be done on improving the deficits [ 18 ]. Meta-analyses have revealed little support for the efficacy of prevention programs [ 19 - 21 ], with increases in knowledge regarding the prevalence, impact, and consequences of rape and sexual assault demonstrating the largest effect sizes [ 20 ].
Unfortunately, self-reported victimization and perpetration were found to result the smallest effects [ 20 ], implying that the effects of prevention programs are largely limited to modifying attitudes and intentions as opposed to modifying actual criterion-relevant behaviorand even these attitudinal changes have been found to decrease with time [ 21 - 24 ]. Reviews have also concluded that longer, narrowly focused interventions, delivered by experts, with certain well defined populations specifically those involved with Greek life were most effective at producing positive changes [ 2025 ].
Past reviews have stressed both the importance and dearth of information regarding the clinical significance of intervention effect sizes [ 2326 ]; without such information, the true impact of prevention programs remains unknown.
From our review of the literature, we suggest that four main approaches to rape prevention currently exist: Each type of intervention poses a unique set of pragmatic and ethical challenges for developers, implementers, and evaluators. This review presents an overview of the most effective available prevention programs, as determined by their effect sizes for decreasing the incidence of sexual violence. Prevention with men is arguably the most important pathway in creating a rape-free environment [ 27 ].
However, this group is notoriously hard to reach [ 2829 ]. Research has found that men are resistant to programs
Preventing sexual harassment on college campuses try to change their attitudes and behaviors, often because they do not see themselves as potential rapists and thus find this information to be irrelevant [ 30 ]. Meta-analysis has found that these interventions have attained moderate success at changing self-reported attitudes but, as stated previously, actual behavioral change is disappointingly
Preventing sexual harassment on college campuses [ 20 ]. Learn how education and awareness...
Only six studies focusing exclusively on males meet the inclusion criteria of quantitatively evaluating incidence of sexual perpetration in U. Table 1 in the appendix provides a summary of these six studies. Three studies reported significant changes in rates of perpetration: However, each study has its own set of issues.
InFoubert et al. Results indicated that, prior to the start of college, those men who later joined fraternities and those who did not had statistically "Preventing sexual harassment on college campuses" rates of pre-college sexually coercive behavior. The lower rates of sexual coercion reported by fraternity men in the treatment groups, while promising, beg the question: Why did only fraternity men in the treatment group report significant improvements, and why were these positive changes limited to sexual coercion?
Male residents in freshman dorms were randomly assigned to either treatment or control groups. Significant effects were found for decreased sexual perpetration in the treatment group compared to the control group at the four-month follow-up 1.
Unfortunately, this effect did not remain significant at the seven-month follow-up. The apparent lack of attitudinal change with the presence of behavioral changes is another finding that further supports the
Preventing sexual harassment on college campuses that attitudinal change is not a proxy for behavioral change. Only the Salazar et al. The RealConsent program consists of six minute training modules aimed at increasing pro-social bystander behaviors while decreasing sexually violent behavior toward women.
Additionally, the treatment group reported "Preventing sexual harassment on college campuses" more pro-social intervening and statistically significant changes on 11 of the 12 secondary outcomes at the six-month follow-up.
Researchers also examined differences between those who had already perpetrated vs. RealConsent represents an innovative and possibly cost-effective approach to rape prevention in an easily disseminated package although no precise values were given, the web-based program was reported to be low-cost. The positive effects found by this study, specifically the decreases in actual perpetration behaviors, support continued evaluation of RealConsent.
However, the fact that the control group at baseline was significantly higher in selfreported perpetration, coercion tactics, and hostility towards women, coupled with the program's large attrition rate, makes conclusions tentative at best. The initial sample, consisting of participants, decreased to only participants by the six-month follow-up.
Specifically, these studies support the continued use of the bystander framework, in which participants are treated as helpers rather than as potential assailants.
Additionally, programs that address issues of consent, such as RealConsent, show encouraging results on curbing sexual violence perpetration and, although replication is needed, the simplicity of dissemination increases their appeal as mandatory trainings for college males.
Many programs that claim success — because they have demonstrated decreases in rape-myth acceptance and increases in knowledge about sexual assault — fail to examine rates of victimization [ 37 ]. However, the relationship between attitudes and behaviors is not causal [ 24 ] and women's attitudes about rape have not been found to be predictive of future victimization [ 38 ]. Moreover, few studies examine the durability of these attitudinal changes. Sixteen studies evaluating risk-reduction programs for women met inclusion criteria, with several reporting positive reductions in sexual victimization.
Table 2 in the appendix details these 16 studies.
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Unfortunately, these positive findings are limited to certain types of sexual-victimization experiences e. The Ohio University Sexual Assault Risk Reduction Prevention Program including its precursors represents the most wellreplicated and researched risk-reduction program to date, with large sample sizes and lengthy follow-up periods.
The program uses lectures, media, and discussions to address topics such as rape-myth acceptance, risk-reducing behaviors, social forces that perpetuate rape culture, dating behaviors associated with acquaintance rape, sexual communication, and situational factors associated with higher risk of sexual assault [ 3940 ].
In a later study, Gidycz et al. Whether these findings result from subtle nuances in the delivery program, from evolution of the program over time, from the particular sample used, or from some other erroneous variable remains to be determined. The use of followup periods, large samples, examination for behavioral outcomes, differentiation
Preventing sexual harassment on college campuses victimization status, RCT methodology, and a well-manualized program all represent strengths of these studies.
However, these studies are not without
Preventing sexual harassment on college campuses examining for dosage, blindness, cost, mechanism of change, and the social validity of the programs all warrant consideration.
The risk-reduction interventions that have garnered the greatest support are those that target specific pathways to victimization. These risk-reduction pathways include self-defense interventions and interventions that target alcohol-facilitated or incapacitated rapes and sexual assaults.
Two studies found statistically significant differences between the treatment and control groups in terms of incapacitated rape. One of these studies, Testa et al. Learn how education and awareness can help prevent sexual assault on college campuses. Make the pact, spread the word. We can all take steps to increase safety on college campuses.
As bystanders, students can learn ways of stepping in to prevent crimes like sexual assault from. Sexual assault on college campuses is common, and often goes unreported.
Preventing sexual harassment on college campuses what you can do if you've been sexually assaulted while in. Youtube Video
Re-thinking Sexual Assault Prevention in High School and College: John Kalin at TEDxColbyCollege
College campuses can give you a sense of security—a feeling that everyone knows each other and watches out for one another. There are perpetrators who take advantage of that feeling of safety and security to commit acts of sexual violence.
We can all take steps to increase safety on college campuses. As bystanders , students can drink in ways of stepping in to prevent crimes commensurate sexual assault from occurring. When it comes to personal safety, there are steps you can lower as well, and some of those tips are outlined below.
The following tips may reduce your risk for many other types of crimes, including sexual violence.
Universities and colleges across the UK are being challenged on their approaches to issues surrounding sexual violence, in how they support students who have experienced sexual harassment and how they disclosed the number of sexual assaults that have happened on campus. The National Sexual Violence Resource Centre has produced a factsheet that includes campus sexual assault , with the following startling facts:. The issue is a complicated one for universities, with academia being accused of carrying a culture of denial around sexual misconduct.
These reviews come after the collapse of several rape trials because evidence had not been shared with defence lawyers. In a Guardian article that warns higher education institutions that they may face their MeToo moment soon, Athene Donald, a professor in experimental physics at the University of Cambridge, argues that the next step in eradicating sexism from science is for colleagues to start calling out harassment when they see it:. Working towards a culture of zero tolerance from every staff member may not only flush out perpetrators but stop them in their tracks.
For these reasons and more, disclosure of evidence around sexual harassment is key and some universities across the UK are introducing sexual harassment reporting schemes. The number of cases reported has rise since the launch of Breaking the Silence in October Pro-Vice-Chancellor for Education at Cambridge, Professor Graham Virgo, explains the challenge of reporting sexual harassment incidents but also the benefits:.
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On its website, the United States Department of Justice highlights a chilling statistic: Young people ages 18 are most at risk for sexual violence. What can colleges do to empower women and promote... One in 5 women and one in 16 men are sexually assaulted while in college;... How universities are preventing sexual harassment & misconduct on campus College is an exciting time for most, because it is the start of a new milestone for millions... Colleges and universities around the country are taking steps to prevent incidents of sexual...
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Preventing sexual harassment on college campuses
January 19, ; Accepted date: March 24, ; Published date: Newlands R, Donohue WO.
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The Realities of Sexual Assault on Campus
When will this end?! We can all take steps to increase safety on college campuses. As bystanders, students can learn ways of stepping in to prevent crimes like sexual assault from . Sexual assault on college campuses is common, and often goes unreported. Learn what you can do if you've been sexually assaulted while in.. MORE: Hp ux vxfs fragmentation asexual reproduction
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