Research on female sexual dysfunction FSD is limited, especially in China, due to conservative culture and beliefs. At the same time, the relationship between thyroid hormones and FSD has seldom been explored in Chinese women. Therefore, hospital-based research was conducted to elucidate FSD frequency and risk factors. Women who underwent a check-up at the Health Promotion Center were approached to participate and, if consented, were enrolled in the study.
Demographic and socioeconomic data was extracted. A total of participants were included in the final analysis, with a mean age of The frequency of FSD among the participants in this hospital-based cross-sectional study was In the s, researchers worldwide began to explore sexual function.
Unfortunately, most studies focused on male sexual issues i. However, women continue to occupy an increasingly dominant place
Zhou yun wife sexual dysfunction the current social and economic life of China. Only in recent decades has research begun to shift attention to this topic 5 — 8but the literature regarding Chinese female sexual dysfunction FSD is still limited.
FSD is defined as disturbances in sexual desire and psychophysiological changes that characterize the sexual response cycle
Zhou yun wife sexual dysfunction causes obvious distress and interpersonal difficulty 9. According to different studies, the prevalence of FSD ranges from Thus, FSD is a common difficulty afflicting women worldwide. Big bobs japan
FSD is a multifactor-related problem 14 According to previous studies, psychological e. Moreover, female sexual function usually is significantly affected by endocrine factors e.
Previously, in a study done on 40 Turkish female patients, Caskurlu concluded that both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are risk factors of FSD.
Therefore, thyroid hormone disorder is also believed to be associate with FSD In China, the incidence of FSD is poorly understood. The optimal cutoff value was established by Ma 8 in based on research conducted within the Chinese Han community, the largest ethnic group in China.
Nevertheless, risk factors of FSD in healthy Chinese women remain understudied. Therefore, a preliminary hospital-based screening study investigating risk factors of FSD based on the optimal diagnostic value for Chinese women was conducted in China. The center provided routine check-ups for every included woman.
Interviewed women who met the following criteria were included: Women who met the following criteria were excluded from enrollment: After written informed consent was acquired, all participants completed the questionnaire in a separate comfortable room.
All participants had a thyroid hormone function test, which evaluated thyroid-stimulating hormone TSHfree thyroxin fT4free triiodothyronine fT3thyroid peroxidase antibody TPOaband thyroglobulin antibody Tgab.
Participants who had
Zhou yun wife sexual dysfunction hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism were excluded from the final analysis.
The reference intervals for thyroid hormones were as follows: CVFSFI is a well-structured, self-administered screening questionnaire with 19 items regarding female sexual function. The CVFSFI evaluates sexual function or problems during the past 4 weeks in six domains desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain.
The raw score on each domain ranges from
Zhou yun wife sexual dysfunction to 5 or 0 to 5. The total score is obtained by calculating the sum of the six domain scores multiplied by the domain coefficients 0. In research conducted by Ma et al. In addition, the optimal cutoff values for low desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and sexual pain in Chinese women were 2. Psychological status was evaluated using the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory BDI-IIa item self-report inventory that is one of the most widely used psychometric tests and a validated screening tool.
This inventory was designed for individuals over 12 years old. Hopelessness, irritability, cognitions and physical symptoms, such as fatigue, weight loss and lack of sexual interest, are the main foci of the BDI-II Participants scoring 0—13 were classified as having no depression status; 14—19, light depression status; 20—28, medium depression status; and 29—63, severe depression status.
If the data were not normally distributed, continuous variables were presented as the median and interquartile range IQR and compared by Mann-Whitney U test. Logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors. The informed consent forms were obtained from all individual participants included in this study.
All study participants provided written informed consent to indicate their agreement for the clinical data to
Zhou yun wife sexual dysfunction used in clinical research Zhou yun wife sexual dysfunction publication.
After the enrollment period, a total of women who had sexual activity in the past 4 weeks expressed their interest in participating in the present study. However, participants were excluded on the basis of their thyroid hormone test because of overt hyper- or hypothyroidism. Therefore, participants with a mean age of No participant was reported as having a disorder of the autonomic nervous system.
Thirty-seven participants were diagnosed with non-malignant cervical disease. In general, the mean FSFI score was Based on the optimal cutoff score of Moreover, the incidence of low desire, low arousal, low lubrication, low orgasm, low satisfaction and sexual pain in participants was The incidence of FSD increased from Similarly, the trend also appeared in other domains low arousal, lubrication, satisfaction and sexual pain.
After adjusting for cofounding variables, we found that age 2. In our study, fT3 level, the values of which ranged from 3.
Participants were divided into two groups based on fT3 value: Then, a significant difference was found between the two groups in FSFI score, Participants were divided into two groups based on fT3 value range: To our limited knowledge, Italian researcher Pontiroli firstly established the brief relation between thyroid hormone metabolic disorders and erectile dysfunction Then revealed increased prevalence of female sexual dysfunction FSD in hypothyroid subjects related with cardiovascular
Zhou yun wife sexual dysfunction factors However, sex research is delayed in China in some degrees, the presented study investigating the potential effect of thyroid hormones disorder on FSD among Chinese women is the first one.
Although Lee et al.
Our study is also the first hospital-based screening research after Ma et al. Our study suggests that the incidence of FSD in China was exactly Women in our study reported a lower incidence than women in other countries.
In all, the statistical variations were mainly associated with various ethnic backgrounds, different cutoff values and diverse cultural backgrounds.
Chinese women always are reluctant to talk about sexual issues openly, which can even prevent them from consulting with physicians due to their traditional conservative beliefs. FSD is a problem that is related to many factors, including psychological, financial, social and physiological factors.
Lower annual income, poor educational background, menopause and depression status were shown to be independent risk factors of FSD in the present study, which was consistent with previous studies 27 In contrast, Mostafa et al. In this study, however, parity was shown to be a risk factor of FSD in healthy participants.
However, Oppo et al. In the present study, elevated fT3 was found to
Zhou yun wife sexual dysfunction an independent risk factor of FSD. It is believed that the thyroid hormone level can influence reproductive hormone levels as well as sexual and reproductive function. Hyperthyroidism affects female sexual
Zhou yun wife sexual dysfunction through causing an obvious change in steroid metabolism, especially androgen As we know, androgen is a key factor in the stimulation of female sexual interest and maintenance of desire Reportedly, hyperthyroidism is associated with a decreased free testosterone concentration and a decrease, in some cases, in estradiol, with a marked increase in sex hormone-binding globulin SHBG In the current research, although the relationship between hyperthyroidism and FSD was not investigated, elevated fT3 was found to be an independent risk factor of FSD, which was consistent with the known mechanism.
4 and Jingqiang Zhu corresponding...
Several limitations were present within our study. First, it was hospital-based research. Comparatively, the economy is less developed than in the coastal region or Beijing. People tend to be more conservative, especially regarding their sex lives or experiences. Previously, Sun et al.
The results in our study are hardly representative of the whole country due to uneven economic and cultural development.
Chow's image in The Diary...
As such, we look forward to more research focusing on this topic. Second, to some degree, limited diversity was inevitable because most participants originated from urban locales.
The results may have been a little different if the study were conducted in a
Zhou yun wife sexual dysfunction or countryside area. Therefore, a multicenter screening study is needed. Third, due to the limitations of health examination programs, data on sex hormones, such as testosterone, estradiol, and luteinizing hormone, could not be collected. An extensive study involving the FSFI questionnaire and sex hormones is currently in progress.
Additionally, it may be interesting to investigate whether thiamazole would affect the FSFI score, quality of life and sex hormone metabolism in hyperthyroidism patients. Moreover, pelvic exams were not performed on participants because of limitations of the check-up program.
Reports of incontinence, which has been found to be associated with FSD 4445were lacking in the study. In addition, physicians are usually more concerned about TSH and fT4 than fT3 in replacement or suppression therapy in thyroidectomy patients Maybe fT3 is an unneglectable issue in thyroidectomy patients, especially female patients.
In conclusion, the frequency of
Zhou yun wife sexual dysfunction sexual dysfunction in China, specifically the southwestern part of the country, was In addition to annual income, educational background, depression status, menopause and parity, elevated fT3 was closely associated with FSD.
In clinical practice, more attention should be given to the relationship between fT3, even overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism, and FSD.
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon star Chow Yun-fat claims to spend only $ USD per month even though he's worth over $ million. In India, literature on the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women is particularly scant. Consecutive, Tamil-speaking, married women who had registered in the medical .
Zhou yun wife sexual dysfunction Ma,Lianjun Pan,Yu Lei,Aixia Zhang,Yanjing Kan Shi, Y.F., Shao, X.Y., Lou, Q.Q., Chen, Y.J., Zhou, H.J., Zou, J.Y.
4 and Jingqiang Zhu corresponding author 1 Research on female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is limited, especially in China, due to conservative The center provided routine check-ups for every included woman. Hong H, Lee HJ, Kim SM, Jeon MJ, Shin DW, Choi HC, Lee H, Yun JM, Cho B, Lee SM.
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