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Controversial sexual health topics

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Sexuality education for adolescents Controversial sexual health topics one of the most controversial topics in the field of child health. In the past decade, policymakers in India have also struggled with the issue and there has been greater public discourse.

However, policymaking and public discussions on adolescent sexuality education are frequently fueled by religious, social, and cultural values, while receiving scant scientific attention. To meet the needs of an expanding young population in India, scientific evidence for best practices must be kept at the core of policymaking in the context of sexuality education for adolescents.

Sexuality education has probably been one of the most controversial topics in the field of child and adolescent health. From western countries like the United States to Southeast Asian countries like India, the topic invites controversies, public debates, and political discussions of a broader variety. Public discussions on this topic are frequently fueled by religious, social, and cultural values, while receiving scant scientific attention. Why has adolescent sexuality education become a burning topic of debate in India?

One possible reason could be the demographic structure of India and its changing needs. Children less than Controversial sexual health topics age of 21 years comprise more than a third of the Indian population.

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In addition, more than 1 in 10 children in India are teenagers or currently experiencing puberty, and more than a quarter of all children will transition to adolescence and puberty within the next decade. Adolescence and puberty are a part of the complex process of growing up marked by vital biological and physical changes.

With these changes, adolescents may also exhibit considerable amount of struggle for autonomy, engagement in risky health behaviors, and a need for education on sexuality and healthy lifestyles. Risky sexual behaviors and lack of knowledge on sexuality-related topics are among the leading problems most associated with mortality, morbidity, and social ailments in adolescents.

We propose four key considerations for adolescent sexuality education in India: Although there are no national estimates of the burden of STIs in Indian children, several regional studies have indicated the potential burden of "Controversial sexual health topics" and the causal factors.

Of all the cases of HIV in India, a major proportion more than one in four is seen in younger individuals due to risky sexual behaviors such as unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners. Sexually transmitted infections are preventable causes of morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, Indian adolescents seem to be inadequately informed about signs, symptoms, and prevention of STIs. In one particular study from Delhi, more than one third of students did not understand the signs and symptoms of STIs.

This is especially disconcerting, given that Maharashtra is one of the states with the highest burden of HIV. A national study of unmarried women in India reported that majority of the recipients of sex and family life education had awareness of reducing and preventing STIs and HIV, whereas majority of those who did not get such education were not aware of STIs and HIV prevention. Pregnancy-related deaths and complications are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in adolescent Indian females.

A lot of pregnancies, especially in rural India happen to young females resulting in adverse maternal and child Controversial sexual health topics outcomes. According to national estimates, almost one in six pregnancies in India is reported by women in the age group of years.

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There are pregnancies in adolescent females that are aborted or not reported, and there are adolescent females at perennial risk of early or unwanted pregnancy. Although there are substantial public debates and controversies on sexuality education, the grave public health issue of teenage pregnancy remains neglected.

The two major implicating factors for adolescent pregnancies in India are early Controversial sexual health topics and lack of birth control or unprotected sex. In either case, sexuality education holds the potential for preventing early and unwanted pregnancies.

Given that more than one fourth of Indian girls get married before the age of 18 years, the efficacy of child marriage ban in India remains questionable with regard to preventing early pregnancies.

However, greater awareness about human sexuality has the potential to delay unwanted and unintended early pregnancies. In a national study, it was reported that unmarried young women in India who have received sex and family life education are more likely to know about birth control and contraception. One putative cause could be the emphasis on sexuality education and implementation of standardized curriculums in schools of many western countries.

Menstrual health of adolescent females is a fairly well-researched and reasonably explored area of child sexuality in the Indian context. Several studies from various parts of "Controversial sexual health topics" have assessed menstrual morbidity, knowledge, perceptions, sources of information, and educational needs of adolescent females with regard to menstrual health and hygiene.

The problems are more profound in adolescent females from rural and socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Several professional organizations e. Interestingly, adolescent Indian females seem to be fairly inquisitive and keen on receiving menstrual health education and promotion. Greater knowledge about sexuality is one possible solution for this unmet reproductive health need of adolescent females in India.

In addition to the key issues discussed above, there are several emerging issues that need specific mention in the context of child sexuality and sexuality education. First, there are issues that interface with child sexuality and other disciplines in humanities. Prominent examples are child pornography, prostitution, child sexual abuse and poor parenting, adolescent dating violence or intimate partner violence, body image disorders, rape and abortion, female feticide and psychosexual disorders, homosexuality, masturbation and pornography consumption by adolescents.

Second, in recent times, there has been a fair amount of research on sexual behavior and attitudes of adolescents in India. Studies have examined views Controversial sexual health topics puberty and infertility; age at first sexual intercourse and engagement in premarital sex; number of sexual partners and emergency contraception, substance use and attitudes about sexual behaviors and virginity, and a cohort of other factors.

For example, a recent study from Pune reported that adolescents who reported sexual abuse, poor relationship with parents, STI symptoms, and substance use were more likely to have engaged in early sexual activities. It is fairly evident that the aforementioned child sexuality issues impose a substantial health-related, physical, and psychological burden on Indian adolescents.

Given all the scientific evidence Controversial sexual health topics above, it is also important to understand public views on adolescent sexuality education in the Indian scenario.

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