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Either your web browser doesn't support Javascript or it is currently turned off. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. Inflammatory processes have a fundamental Joe gianfriddo on online dating in the pathophysiology of stroke. A key initial event is the rapid activation of resident immune cells, primarily microglia. This cell population is an important target for new therapeutic approaches to limit stroke damage.

Activation of microglia is normally held in check by strictly controlled mechanisms involving neuronal-glial communication. Ischemic stroke is a powerful stimulus that disables the endogenous inhibitory signaling and triggers microglial activation. Once activated, microglia exhibit a spectrum of phenotypes, release both pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, and function to either exacerbate ischemic injury or help repair depending on different molecular signals the microglial receptors receive.

Various ligands and receptors have been identified for microglial activation. Experimental tools to detect these inflammatory signals are being increasingly developed in an effort to define the functional roles of microglia. Fine-tuning immunomodulatory interventions based on the heterogeneous profiles of microglia are urgently needed for ischemic stroke. Inflammation plays a critical role in mediating post-ischemic injury. The activation of microglia, the major resident immune cells in the brain, is a key element in triggering the innate immune response [ 1 ].

When ischemia occurs, cessation of cerebral blood flow leads to deprivation of oxygen and glucose to areas supplied by the occluded vessel.

Resultantly, vulnerable neurons are subject to death and the endogenous signaling that inhibits inflammatory responses under physiological conditions compromises, leading to microglial activation. Once activated, microglia develop macrophage-like capabilities including phagocytosis, cytokine production, antigen presentation and the release of matrix metalloproteinases MMPs that weaken the blood brain barrier BBB [ 2 ].

As a result, peripheral leukocytes infiltrate into Joe gianfriddo on online dating brain and the normally immune-privileged brain environment is Joe gianfriddo on online dating to systemic responses that further exacerbate inflammation and brain damage.

The inflammatory response has dual effects on ischemic injury [ 3 ]. Phagocytosis of cellular debris and harmful substances along with the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines by microglia occurs in an effort to restore tissue homeostasis by clearing pathogens or necrotic cells, and consequently attenuate the detrimental effects of inflammation and aid in tissue repair [ 56 ].

Because of their critical roles in the immune response to stroke, microglia have become a recent target of interest for many stroke scientists. This review focuses on current findings, providing an update on microglial activation, phenotype identification, and the roles of microglia in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. There has been much controversy over the characterization of the cell lineage of microglia.

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