The journal is issued twice a year. Materials included in this volume were previously reviewed. PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Lyushnivskaedited by K. Zapalska and Alexander Waid illustrate a collaborative learning instrument that can be used in any Spanish as a Foreign Language program.
The instrument simulates a market where students become buyers and sellers of different commodities. The instrument presented offers participants a highly integrated method of learning a particular vocabulary set in a communicative manner. Gregory Cantemir and Mariana Vovc bring forth a series of arguments and techniques for the application of the Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences in teaching the Romanian language and literature.
Marina Teterina shows how the method of discourse analysis can be applied to examine pragmatic usage of the category of gender in English, its different connotative meanings. Alina Guga-Cotea studies the problem of evaluation which helps the persons involved in the educational process make decisions.
Oxana Ungur proposes a didactic project pointed on the life signification. Abstract This paper illustrates a collaborative learning instrument that can be used in any Spanish as a Foreign Language program. The authors recommend the use of the exercise in a classroom with students who already have an intermediate proficiency or better in Spanish. As students have to read, take notes and communicate orally to complete their trading transactions, they are able to practice Spanish in different ways by writing, speaking, and reading.
Introduction With the increasing enrollment of students in Spanish programs in higher education, Spanish is among the fastest growing programs in post secondary education. Spanish programs aim to help non-native Spanish speakers, heritagespeakers and native speakers, learn and improve their use of the language and PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Although Spanish programs bring together students from different backgrounds, many of these students are not very familiar with the Spanish language and Hispanic cultures.
While some discussions about learning a second language focus on the factors individual, social, and cultural - Filmul mesterul manole de lucian blaga online dating affect students' learning, little emphasis is given to teaching methodologies that would allow proper inclusion into the new environment1.
These contextual factors have been broadly discussed in the literature but teaching methodologies need to be discussed and considered from the perspective of the language, the learner, and the learning process2.
This paper discusses these perspectives as they relate to teaching Spanish language students who will pursue a career in Spanish. The focus is placed on an example of collaborative learning and its positive effect on the learning of the students. Literature Review Teaching Spanish requires the ability to combine many different elements that address the learning styles, skill levels, cultural background and specific learning objectives of each individual3.
Teachers can use a variety of techniques, grouping strategies and a selection of self-access materials to help all learners be successful, comfortable, and productive for each "Filmul mesterul manole de lucian blaga online dating" meeting4. Individual capacity for learning languages has been debated. Some researchers believe that all learners have the same capacity to learn a second language because they have learned a first language5.
Others assert that the ability to recognize and internalize foreign sounds may be unequally developed in different learners6. Nonlinguistic factors related to an individual's personality and learning goals could influence achievement in mastery of foreign language.
Attitude toward the target language, culture, native speakers, and motivation for learning can all support or impede foreign language skills development7. While teaching a foreign language, teachers should realize that learners differ from one another in significant ways. Learners begin with varying degrees of competence and then progress at different rates in each of the language skills: Other factors that add to diversity in the classroom and to rate of progress in learning foreign language are the type and amount of a learner's previous education, their learning style preference, learner expectations of appropriate classroom activities, and the culture, religion, sex, and age of each learner9.
Furthermore, it deserves mention that the number one purpose students cited for going to college in a Chronicle of Higher Education article was to make more money Research has shown that individuals vary greatly in the ways they learn a foreign language Some learners are more analytically oriented and thrive on picking apart words and sentences.
Others are more globally oriented, needing to experience overall patterns of language in meaningful contexts before making sense of the PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Some learners are more visually oriented, kinesthetic learners learn better when they are involved in doing things, some prefer to learn by reading and writing, and others more geared to auditory forms of learning One of the most effective teaching
Filmul mesterul manole de lucian blaga online dating for the learning of Spanish or any language, for that matter involves collaborative learning where students work together as a group to perform a task Collaborative learning has been strongly advocated and used to promote educational goals in a variety of college disciplines By definition, collaborative learning requires students Filmul mesterul manole de lucian blaga online dating work together in small groups to analyze, criticize, discuss, solve study problems and actively participate in the classroom instead of simply taking notes It has been recognized that collaborative learning enables students to: A particular area of difficulty for many foreign language educators is the design of activities whose function is to improve or broaden lexical dexterity: As Coady and Huckin and Weissberg point out, roughly 30 years have gone by since the advent of communicative language teaching: This makes sense at the elementary level as students are learning the language in a universal and holistic way.
But, for students looking to delve deeper into a particular area of technical vocabulary in their field, and for the teachers looking to teach it to them, there is very little in the way of pedagogical or methodological research. This paper has been prepared with the hope that the collaborative technique presented can be adopted and adapted to suit personal style preferences as well as lexical or grammatical needs.
The technique proved to be very enjoyable for English as the Second Language course participants, and provided them with a new and exciting way to further develop their English skills in a setting dedicated to their professional interests. An example of collaborative learning that can be used in the Spanish classroom is demonstrated in the next section. A Collaborative Exercise The class is divided into six families who act both as sellers and buyers.
The names of families are presented in Table 3. We chose the following names: Each student is randomly assigned to a family. If class has more than six students, then two or more students can be assigned to a family. The general information sheet is presented in a written form to all participants. A copy of "Filmul mesterul manole de lucian blaga online dating" sheet is presented in Table 1.
Those groups of students who possess at least an intermediate level of Spanish language knowledge are recommended to read instructions in Spanish. The instructions quoted in Table 1 are sufficient for the players to start their selling and buying transactions. Players learn that their obligation is to meet their family demands by selling their commodities to the other market participants and buying other commodities from them.
Each family is also given a list of the items available to trade and items that are needed. The Bill Family has ducks, geese, horses, donkeys, pigs, and dogs to trade away for chickens, roosters, cows, mules, pigeons and cats. The Bill Family does not know the relative value of these animals in the overall market. The supply and demand characteristics of the market set the price of goods, not relative size or preconceived notions.
The players do not receive any information about the market conditions other than their individual buying or selling orders. In addition to providing players with lists of needed and available items, each player is also given a quantity of money.
Money is introduced for price discovery. Enough currency should be given in bills of adequate denomination to assure that there is not a liquidity problem or a deflation in the market. The amount of currency used should be in proportion to the amount of goods added. Nevertheless, it is better to have too much currency than too little at this stage. The currency should be in some obviously fictitious unit, like Ecos or Bozos, so that players will have no preconceived notions concerning value.
The use of money as a unit of account not only conveys information about the relative supply and demand of a given trading item, "Filmul mesterul manole de lucian blaga online dating" it can greatly simplify the accounting necessary to provide an accurate record of trading. Since the goal of trading is wealth maximization, each trading family tries to get as many "things" as possible.
For example, the Bill family needs 20 ducks, but it would be better for this Trader to have 30 or 40 ducks. The more "things" that the Bill family can get the richer the family will be. One thing that the Bill family does not want to do is to finish the trading period with any ducks, geese, horses, donkey, pigs or dogs left over. These were items that the Bill family wanted to trade away, and it would be inefficient to take them back out of the market.
All items brought into the market should be traded away for other "things. After the families have a chance to make sure they understand the instructions, the game is started. When the market opens, families start to make deals with other trading families to complete transactions consistent with each family's supply of goods and specified needs.
Everyone is free to circulate and make trades at any time. Students communicate orally in the target language, Spanish in this case, to complete their trading tasks. Trading continues until the close of the market is announced by the instructor. At the end of the trading session, each trading family reports what "things" it has, including items successfully traded for and items not yet traded away see Appendix A, Table Filmul mesterul manole de lucian blaga online dating. Determination of the success or failure of each family occurs when families can be identified as winners or losers by determining whether or not they were able to meet their needs.
A family who collects all the needed items, and maybe extras, wins over families who cannot meet their basic needs. The increase in profits can also be considered as one of the elements of a winning position. At the end of the game, the transactions for each trading family and for the total market are presented so that the families are able to observe how their behavior affected other trading families.
Interaction within the group and between groups plays a very important role in increasing effectiveness of the Spanish language learning.
Oral interaction can be enhanced by assigning roles. Students with lower levels of Spanish proficiency might work in pairs with those students who are more proficient to develop and generate a joint work effort within trading families. Students in a trading family are responsible for keeping accounting, looking for trades and asking while trading to ensure that all commodities are purchased and sold.
The larger the group the more difficult the task may become. However, it is possible to assign roles and then change these roles after twenty minutes of play so that every student has a chance to practice and experience different linguistic and market strategies within the game context.
In summary, the game is primarily a learning experience that can help the Spanish and prospective business students practice some basic business concepts through their own involvement. Its strength derives from the fact that students learn the language by actively participating in a collaborative exercise that imitates the real market situation. The group interaction and collaboration produces role-playing situations that involve the Spanish students who learn by discovery and practice while working in groups.
The collaborative game provides an excellent and enjoyable learning environment where the Spanish students particularly, business students, practice Spanish. The collaborative exercise presented generates experiences that lead the Spanish students to more sophisticated and relevant inquiry, and language practice. The use of collaborative techniques in the Spanish language classroom results in greater student involvement, motivation and than do more traditional individual learning activities.
It helps students integrate ideas, develop mastery of the concepts and terms that they are expected to learn. The other importance of the collaborative instrument is its effect on the social and cultural setting in which learning takes place.
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