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The Chechens The ancient Chechen nation has been living in its idyllic homeland in the North Caucasus for thousands of The Chechens The ancient Chechen nation has been living in its idyllic homeland in the North Caucasus for thousands of years, building states, creating its own civilization, and forging relations and interacting with other Caucasian and Near Eastern civilizations.

The only comprehensive treatment of the subject available in English, this book provides a ready introduction and practical guide to the Chechen people, and to some little known and rarely considered aspects of Chechen culture, including customs and traditions, folklore, arts and architecture, music and literature.

The Chechens also includes: This handbook should prove a corrective to the negative stereotypes that have come to be Malenkie taini online dating with the Chechens and put a human face back on one of the noblest—yet least understood—of nations.

This book is an indispensable and accessible resource for all those with an interest in Chechnya. Caucasus World Peoples of the Caucasus Series editor: Nicholas Awde This series of handbooks provides a ready introduction and practical guide to the many peoples and languages of the Caucasus.

Each handbook includes chapters written by experts in the field, covering all aspects of the people, including their history, religion, politics, economy, culture, literature and media, plus pictures, chronologies and appendices of up-to-date statistics, maps and bibliographies. Malenkie taini online dating volume in the Peoples of the Caucasus series will be an indispensable resource to all those with an interest in the Caucasus.

The Russian Conquest of the Caucasus J. Ghazarian The Kingdom of Armenia M.

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Atayan, translated by V. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. The bitter winter of saw the Malenkie taini online dating deportation of the Chechens to Central Asia and Siberia, many in cattle trucks, while those in the mountains who could or would not be moved were burnt alive in their villages.

Their land was literally erased from the Soviet maps.

The following decades saw the Chechens rebuild their land until, inthey declared themselves a sovereign nation. But, with grim inevitability, wars with Russia followed in andresulting in the razing of Chechnya. As Alexander Solzhenitsyn wrote, describing the conditions in the Soviet gulags: These were the "Malenkie taini online dating." The Chechens have also been fighting to preserve their cultural identity and heritage. The — War, for example, saw the destruction of the national archives in Grozny, a unique, irreplaceable accumulation of Chechen culture that had only finally come together in the previous few years.

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Caught as their homeland is between Malenkie taini online dating power blocs and the deadly practicalities of energy politics, perhaps their greatest challenge still lies ahead. Indeed, the Chechens are at a major crossroads in their existence, where the choice is stark: Either way it amounts to the murder of a people, since the difference brought by Malenkie taini online dating twentieth and now the twenty-first centuries is simple: Behind the romantic image of indomitable mountaineers lies a welcoming people whose migrant communities have helped build countries like Jordan, Turkey and even Russia.

Significantly, the Chechens, for all their warlike reputation, have never sought to invade another country or enslave another people. And, while one cannot ignore the scale of Russian savagery against the Chechens, one cannot ignore the interdependence that has grown between the two peoples.

While no one can deny the existence of terrorist attacks carried out by Chechen guerrillas, these have little to do with international Malenkie taini online dating networks, but everything to do with three centuries of oppression of a people no more and no less Islamic than the British are Anglican.

Indeed, the Chechen character is less Islamic and more Caucasian, related neither culturally nor linguistically to their northern neighbours. For a people who are supposed to represent such a strategic threat, beyond the welter of expert reports on the ongoing crisis, very little has been written about them.

As Amjad Jaimoukha says, there is a jigsaw here that needs to be pieced together before it is too late. This book itself is the Malenkie taini online dating such work to present a complete picture of the people in any language. The Chechens have fought long and hard with their own resources and those of neighbouring Caucasians to maintain their right to their way of life in their own land. Now it is time we lent a hand. Otherwise what is endangered may become extinct.

The present destruction of the Chechen homeland is particularly a catastrophe for the diaspora, since this has meant the loss of the central place that links them, while the refugee communities face their own crisis of identity and assimilation.

This book, therefore, is meant not to be a catalogue of deportations and massacres, nor is it a glorification of a noble warrior people. Instead this is a celebration of a unique culture and so warns of what may be lost to us all.

This, therefore, is a handbook for survival: Nicholas Awde London, Acknowledgements I would like to express my undying gratitude to Nicholas Awde for his very informative suggestions and comments on this book, and for effecting a most dramatic transformation in my life and career.

JonArno Lawson, apart from his significant contributions to this work, was a source of inspiration with his heightened sense of aestheticism. Jumana Belbeisi checked and edited some sections of the manuscript. I would also like to thank Richard Willis, the project manager, and Jane Olorenshaw, the copy-editor. I gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the following: Nadia Bisha and Dumasara Malenkie taini online dating provided warmth and support during a period of intense toil and anguish.

The figures in this book previously appeared in two publications: Every effort has been made to contact the copyright holders of these books for their permission to reprint the figures in this book.

The publisher would be grateful to hear from any copyright holder who is not here acknowledged and will undertake to rectify any errors or omissions in future editions of the book. My very deep gratitude also to Amy Freedman, Sophie and Asher, for their love, patience and support.

Because of inadequate background knowledge, Western reporting is full of speculation in which the unknown is fitted into pre-existing theories. Armstrong Writers on Chechen issues have to deal with the problem of a dearth of information, which becomes especially acute for non-Russian and non-Chechen speakers, given that most of the references are in these two languages.

On the one hand, the Chechens want their conception of the ideal model of their society to be regarded Malenkie taini online dating the proto-democratic organization of human development—on a par with the ancient Greek democratic ethos.

Westerners, on the other hand, in their effort to understand the esoteric Chechen society, seem to rely mainly on reference materials, predominantly in Russian, on the recent and relatively well-known past, for it is uncomfortable to go back beyond Russian intervention in the Caucasus in the eighteenth century AD for lack of readily available sources of information and because of the considerable effort required to delve more deeply into Chechen affairs.

For example, it is commonly stated that the Chechens had never developed a feudal society. However, egalitarianism had become a leading beacon in Chechen society only since the late Middle Ages, when the Chechen rank and file ousted their local and foreign feudal lords.

He had as informants the exiled North Caucasian nationalists who promoted the image of North Caucasian unity in all aspects, to the detriment of the historical and cultural particularities of each of the North Malenkie taini online dating peoples. It is hoped Malenkie taini online dating the chapters on history will show that most definitely the Chechens had a discrete history, which, however, does not negate the fact that at times it coincided with that of other peoples in the vicinity, the Avars included.

It is also claimed by some authorities that it was the encounter with the Russians that shaped and honed the warlike character of the Chechens and later engendered their national identity.

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Again this is short-sighted, for the ancestors of the Chechens had to deal with the Malenkie taini online dating ferocious of medieval hordes—the Tatar-Mongols. Particularly, it is the age-old spirit of national preservation that had carried the Chechens through the trials and The Chechens 2 tribulations of the last few centuries, including the ghastly deportation. The journalist Sebastian Smith had tried Malenkie taini online dating a long time to find out the significance of the Sufi fraternities in the Chechen ethos: The Chechens…were able to survive by retreating into the inner world of the Sufi brotherhoods—the same secretive, sometimes fanatical organisations which led resistance to the tsarist armies and then the Bolsheviks.

The history of Chechnya is not widely known beyond the familiar terrain of the last three centuries. However, little research had been done on ancient and medieval Chechen history, and even the terra cognita was besmirched by communist drivel. An attempt is made in this book to piece together a coherent history of the Chechens from ancient times.

Still, Chechen historians have the daunting task of rewriting their history sans foreign coercion with the few archival materials that have escaped the destruction of the past decade. But first, the urgent matter of survival must be attended to. It is most important to emphasize that Malenkie taini online dating history does not start with Chechnya being part of Russia.

International perspective in general can cast back only to the establishment of Soviet power and the subsequent arbitrary designation of the North Caucasian entities as autonomous republics and regions of the Russian SSR. This myopic view of the Chechen issue does not encompass the genocidal nineteenth-century Russian—Caucasian War.

On the other hand, the North Caucasian perspective goes back to the most ancient of Caucasian cultures, dating back to more than five millennia ago. Malenkie taini online dating Vainakh also constituted an important element in the eneolithic Kura-Arax culture in the TransCaucasus.

However, it has not been absolutely established whether Vainakh culture is a continuation of these ancient civilizations, or just a close kin. A tentative connecting line is drawn from the earliest Hurrians to the present-day Vainakh, with the qualifying statement that much more research needs to be done in this area.

The conquest of the Caucasus was a bloody affair, with the Russians destroying villages, slaughtering civilian populations and deporting, to achieve victory. The Chechens defended their homeland for almost a century, but in the end sheer numbers vanquished valour and the Chechen population was literally decimated, and, by the middle of the nineteenth century, the strength of the nation was almost completely sapped, enabling Russia to incorporate Chechnya.

Population census figures are included as indicators of the horrific loss of human life that the Chechens have been periodically sustaining in their continuous confrontation with the Russians.

A large Chechen diaspora was created in the Middle East and Turkey as a result of mass expulsions. The Chechens that remained in the Caucasus after the war were able to reorganize their shattered lives by falling back on their deeply ingrained traditions and stable social structures.

Unlike the Circassians, who were almost exterminated and scattered over a wide geographic area, the Chechens managed to keep their traditional domicile, albeit with some population "Malenkie taini online dating" dictated by Russian policy. The Chechens never reconciled themselves to Russian hegemony and had always been on the look-out for a chance to rid themselves of the bloody occupiers.